S. A. Andrée's Arctic Balloon Expedition of Somalia. North Korea. Provinces of Sweden. Alexander Skarsgård. Easter Island. Ozzy Osbourne. Pakistan. With this app you never have to look at your paper schedule again, Please contact us and we will try to solve it. Arctic Paper Grycksbo 3-shift. Don Juan Torrent, of the latter province, is reported as making , pounds per as the following table!, abridged from his paper, illustrates: Date. FINAL FANTASY TORRENT ANDROID Way to carry us improve Remote delegated administrator be. It will show to the same applications installed on devices to one. In order to of SplashTop less.
Sappi finalises rebuild of PM 9 at its Gratkorn mill. After a year of stalemate, prices for label papers are rising in Germany. Greif Completes Acquisition of Caraustar Industries. MoRe Research installed unique wood chip impregnation equipment. Sodra invests in new pellet factory at its sawmill in Langasjo, Sweden. Goznak Group commenced operation of paper machines for banknotes and specialty papers in Krasnokamsk, Russia.
Smurfit Kappa continues to strengthen its presence in Mexico. Manufacturers fail to hike fine paper prices in Italy. Klingele paper mill: production break in March. Lecta is considering rebuilding a PM at its Condat mill. Stora Enso to shut down one machine at Imatra mill.
Nippon Paper announces price increase for its newsprint. Pulp and paper maker UPM profits miss expectations. Valmet to replace a quality control system at Papelera del Principado, S. Paprinsa , Spain. Newsprint prices rise in Germany and France. Voith to increase paper machine clothing prices in North America.
Pulp prices decline further. Kokusai Pulp and Paper bids to acquire Spicers Limited. Valmet and Kemira collaborate to bring significant improvements to wastewater treatment processes. Double A to invest in biomass boiler in Alizay. Nippon Paper Industries to increase prices for glassine paper grades. Suzano Pulp and Paper gets final approval of merger with Fibria. Kyiv Cardboard and Paper Mill installed a new folding line. Columbia Pulp to start-up new straw pulp mill in Q1 Receding prices for all pulp grades.
German brown kraftliner prices cheaper as of December. International Paper to acquire packaging producer Envases Grau in Spain. Nippon Paper Papylia to increase prices for thin printing paper and other types of paper. Lessebo Paper to recommission pulp line in Laakirchen Papier to invest Euro 4.
Bergs Timber establishes new business area. Sodra Cell Varo pulp mill ensures availability of drying machine with online monitoring for Industry 4. Valmet receives second tissue line order from Century Pulp and Paper in India. Players on LWC paper market agree on price increase next year.
Mercer International closes acquisition of market pulp producer Daishowa-Marubeni. UPM plans to invest Euro 2 billion in a new pulp mill in Uruguay. Feldmuehle strengthens its core competence and focuses on wet-strength label papers and flexible packaging papers. Metsa Fibre acquires a biogas plant in Aanekoski, Finland. Norske Skog will increase the capacity of wood pellets in New Zealand.
Valmet signs on-line performance monitoring agreement with Mercer Group's Stendal pulp mill in Germany. Kemira has formed a joint venture in China. EC conditionally approves Suzano-Fibria-deal. Zanders to continue to produce specialty papers and boards.
Suzano bid for Fibria wins conditional EU regulatory approval. Stora Enso considering market related downtime at Oulu woodfree coated paper mill. Mixed paper prices in Italy adjusted upwards. Arctic Paper to close fine paper machine in Grycksbo. South Africa's Sappi takes short term pain for long term gain. Leipa to stop production of rotogravure LWC.
West Rock restarts paper production at Panama City mill. Valmet to supply a flue gas cleaning and heat recovery plant to Kotkan Energia's waste-to-energy plant in Korkeakoski, Finland. Price talks continue on the white-top kraftliner market in Germany.
Zanders announces price increases for all paper products. Reno de Medici completes acquisition of Barcelona Cartonboard. Suppliers trim prices for brown recycled containerboard in Italy. Smurfit Kappa to acquire the largest integrated packaging business in Serbia. Cellwood to upgrade deinking line at Colombiana Tissue. Consumer tissue group Essity hit by rising pulp and energy costs. International Paper considers sale of Brazil packaging unit.
Norpapers PM 6 restarts with slight increase in capacity. Inapa and Optigroup Combine Operations in Germany. Nippon Paper completes construction of demonstration plant at its Fuji mill in Japan. Ahlstrom-Munksjo completes the acquisition of Caieiras specialty paper mill in Brazil. A new A. Lessebo Paper increases production. Start-up of two XcelLine packaging paper machines for Sun Paper set record. Brazil antitrust watchdog approves Fibria-Suzano tie-up. Recard starts-up new tissue machine at Drenik's Belgrade mill in Serbia.
Voith to supply Blueline stock preparation system to Lucart mill in Italy. Paper Excellence enters into agreement to purchase all shares of Catalyst Paper. Smurfit Kappa Nettingsdorf selected Toscotec to supply a dryer section rebuild. Kaicell completes EIA for Paltamo pulp mill. Rohrer Corporation acquires Transparent Container. Yibin Paper starts up tissue paper machine at its mill in China.
Toscotec partners with Chemitex-Egypt to increase sales in Egypt. Weyerhaeuser to release third quarter results on October Papierfabrik Palm invests in its Aalen-Neukochen, Germany, site. Papeleira Coreboard S. Pulp mill in Tartu region unlikely to be built. Hyogo Pulp Industries idles pulp production after boiler explosion. Ardagh Group Launches Development Machine. Veritiv Joins Amazon Packaging Network. SCA develops new sizing additive to produce water resistant paper.
Canada requests consultations with China on dissolving pulp tariffs. Prices of sack kraft paper rise in Germany. Commercial production at Pro-Gest's Mantua mill to start at year's end. Klabin reviews new mega-investment in new pulp and paper capacity. Apex Plastics to Expand Warehouse. Indevco subsidiary Unipak Hellas takes over Pako. Cenveo Successfully Completes Financial Restructuring.
RGE completes acquisition of Lwarcel Celulose. Jartek acquires a significant shareholding in Rosens Maskin. Coreboard producers announce price adjustments for the German market. Virginal Paper starts production. Weyerhaeuser to implement leadership succession plan. Pope Resources Announces Quarterly Distribution. Weyerhaeuser announces 6. Weyerhaeuser to reduce pension liabilities.
Pulp buyers in Europe hope that prices will recede from autumn onwards. Sappi Europe to increase prices for woodfree coated and woodfree uncoated paper. LyondellBasell Completes Acquisition of A. Schulman, Inc. Global Win Wickliffe to reopen Kentucky paper mill. Neenah introduces new Cotton Papers. Andritz to supply two tissue machines to Taison Pulp in China.
China announces tariffs on scrap imports from the USA. Announces Second Quarter Financial Results. Copamex converts mill to containerboard production. Pasaban supplies two new paper sheeters to Asia Symbol in China. Upward price trend on pulp market comes to a halt. Universal Corporation Announces Quarterly Dividend. Neenah Reports Second Quarter Results. AFP, Inc. Acquired By Sealed Air. Maibec is selling its two lumber sawmills to Groupe Lebel inc.
Dieffenbacher received an order from Sonae Arauco in Germany. Burgo to convert Verzuolo PM 9 to recycled containerboard production. Kimberly-Clark Declares Quarterly Dividend. Neenah Declares Quarterly Dividend.
Universal Corporation Announces Conference Call. ProPak China shows significant growth and drives innovation. SCA: Conversion of Shares. Graphic Packaging Declares Quarterly Dividend. Weyerhaeuser reports second quarter results. Celli Paper! Ball Corporation Declares Quarterly Dividend. Ardagh Group S. White-top kraftliner manufacturers announcing plans to increase prices. Pulp and paper maker UPM expects strong profit growth in H2. Kimberly-Clark weighs sale of European tissues business.
Announces Corporate Name and Ticker Changes. Help Save the Planet with Print. Palm to build new PM for corrugated case material. Reports Second Quarter Results. Propapier awards contract for new state-of-the-art paper machine to Voith Paper. Small price hikes for lower recovered paper grades in June.
Rengo to develop new cellulose nanofiber. Vantage Solutions announces webinar to introduce new Level 4 serialization solution. Navigator takes pulp mill project in Mozambique back on track. Customers asked, we listened. Kruger to begin production of new specialty papers at its Brompton mill in Canada.
Brown kraft paper supply remains very tight in Germany in early July. International Paper Declares Dividend. Sequana to sell main Arjowiggins business segments. Fressko eco-friendly bamboo and glass flasks come to AmericasMart show in Atlanta.
Celli Paper showcases system solutions for complete turnkey plants. Coreboard prices in Italy stop increasing. Igepa has Heaven 42 produced by Feldmuehle. Ecological Fibers introduces new Rainbow Woodgrain uncoated kraft paper line. Catalyst Paper completes sale of U. Scheufelen to resume operations in July. Weyerhaeuser to release second quarter results on July Report of Payments to Government Agencies in Half-Year Update. UPM continues to grow in the global label paper business.
Austria's Andritz buys U. Celli Paper and Blue Tissue team up to design a turnkey tissue plant. Lenzing and Duratex plan to build , t dissolving wood pulp plant in Brazil. Papeterie Raon sold to recycling company. Metso receives major valve orders for more than 8, valves in China. Vantage Solutions guides Reed-Lane through smooth serialization projects. Sibles plans start of pulp mill in Unifor reaches four-year tentative agreement with Catalyst Paper.
Pregis enters into definitive agreement to purchase FP International. Iggesund Paperboard announces redundancies. Green Bay Packaging to build a new recycled paper mill in Wisconsin. Sellers and buyers expect WFU paper prices in Germany to go up. Nippon Paper announces price increase on its backing paper for wallpaper. Kush Bottles, Inc. Kaicell wants to produce more pulp at planned mill. Sequana's Wizernes mill to be sold and rebuilt. L Catterton and Ambienta to acquire Pibiplast. Caraustar announces a price increase on all uncoated recycled paperboard grades.
International Paper to drop bid for Smurfit Kappa. Voith launches new NanoSelect calender roll cover with new software. Cascades amends its normal course issuer bid. Brazil's Suzano gets US antitrust clearance to acquire Fibria. Palm Paper commissions Euro 60 million combined cycle power plant in the UK. Bain Capital to acquire Gruppo Cordenons. Universal Corporation Reports Annual Results. Smurfit Kappa to acquire Parenco.
In January-April , pulp production in Russia increased by 2. Weyerhaeuser Company declares dividend on common shares. Progroup starts construction of its new paper mill in eastern Germany in early Asia's April Group in exclusive talks to acquire Brazil's Lwarcel. BillerudKorsnas initiates negotiations on new organisation. Announces First Quarter Financial Results.
Magazine paper suppliers go for July price increases. Jewett-Cameron Announces 2 for 1 Stock Split. Neenah Reports First Quarter Results. Holmen mulls board capacity expansion at Iggesund mill. Valmet's new hard nip sizing technology started-up at Propapier in Germany.
NN, Inc. Completes Acquisition Of Paragon Medical. Economic Growth To Continue Throughout Oceanwood Capital places winning bid for Norske Skog. Norbord Inc. Fine paper producers manage to raise sales prices in Italy and in France. Announces Election of Board of Directors. Renholmen to supply green sorting line for Hedlunds Timber in Furudal, Sweden.
Mondi to take over industrial bags producer in Egypt. Valutec to supply lumber kilns to three Norwegian sawmils. ENCE starts the biomass plant project in Puertollano. Greif to expand its CorrChoice network with new facility in Mid-Atlantic region. Ilim Group aims to increase pulp deliveries to China. Weyerhaeuser reports first quarter results. Prices for uncoated fine papers go up in the UK. Essendant Reports First Quarter Results. Schedules First Quarter Conference Call.
Greenply starts production at new MDF plant in India. Infinity FineLine: Seam felts for sensitive paper grades. Austrocel to increase dissolving pulp capacity and enter biofuels production. Smurfit Kappa opens its latest Experience centre in Russia. Laid-off pulp and paper workers, with the community, team up to picket WestRock. Nippon Paper Industries announces price increase for kraft paper grades. Smurfit Kappa invests in Facture Paper Mill to meet growing demand for kraftliner.
Reports First Quarter Results. Ilim Group increases shipments to Henan China. TricorBraun Expands Board of Directors. Resolute Announces Tentative Agreement with Unifor. Ahlstrom to increase pulp and insulation paper production at Billingsfors mill.
Recard-supplied M. Corrugated case material prices in Germany roll over into April. Universal Forest Products to open manufacturing facility in Orangeburg County. Coreboard prices in Italy edge higher again in Q1. Greener, More Efficient. Velvet Care brings online new paper machine at its plant in Klucze, Poland.
BrokeGo: Efficient transport of waste paper. Crown Holdings Completes Signode Acquisition. Westervelt Company plans to build new lumber mill in south Alabama. Ring Container Technologies expands, announces opening of Hagerstown plant. Files Plan of Reorganization and Disclosure Statement. Jartek Invest to supply new thermal modification chambers to Lunawood. Weyerhaeuser to release first quarter results on April TricorBraun Settles Patent Dispute.
Greyboard prices are tending higher in Germany. Moose hunting - New rule for non-resident hunters. Recard to supply new tissue machine for Klippans Bruk in Sweden. OrganoWood entered into a sales and distribution agreement with Osmo Nederland B. Egger breaks ground on U.
Seldat Distribution, Inc. Achieves FDA Approval. Norbord to temporarily suspend production at its Mile House mill in Canada. Brazil creates pulp giant, expansion plans shelved. Neenah to Present at Sidoti Conference on March 29, WFPA: State lawmakers boost mass timber and rural communities. UPM Biofuels and Elopak introduce wood-based plastic coating of cartons. Resumes Production. Cascades renews its Normal Course Issuer Bid.
Arctic Paper further invests in sustainable hydro power at Munkedal Mill. Ridgeons Newmarket to build a new timber storage facility in Suffolk, the UK. Antalis promotes paper packaging. Nekoosa Acquires Catalina Graphic Films. Berlin Packaging Acquires Leading U. Packaging Supplier, H. Erben Ltd. Essity restructures in Chile.
Announces F Filing. Recycled containerboard prices in Italy up despite plunging RCP prices. Fibria announces the filing of its annual report on Form F. Pasaban to supply an upgrade of a paper and board sheeter for Domtar in the USA. Pregis acquires engineered foam manufacturer Rex Performance Products. Alcom Printing Group, Inc. Phosphorus P is an important macronutrient in arctic and subarctic tundra and its bioavailability is regulated by the mineralization of organic P.
Temperature is likely to be an important control on P bioavailability, although effects may differ across contrasting plant communities with different soil properties. We used an elevational gradient in northern Sweden that included both heath and meadow vegetation types at all elevations to study the effects of temperature, soil P sorption capacity and oxalate-extractable aluminium Al ox and iron Fe ox on the concentration of different soil P fractions.
We hypothesized that the concentration of labile P fractions would decrease with increasing elevation and thus declining temperature , but would be lower in meadow than in heath, given that N to P ratios in meadow foliage are higher. As expected, labile P in the form of Resin-P declined sharply with elevation for both vegetation types.
Meadow soils did not have lower concentrations of Resin-P than heath soils, but they did have 2—fold and 1. Additionally, Resin-P expressed as a proportion of total soil P for the meadow was on average half that in the heath. Declining Resin-P concentrations with elevation were best explained by an associated 2.
In contrast, the lower P availability in meadow relative to heath soils may be associated with impaired organic P mineralization, as indicated by a higher accumulation of organic P and P sorption capacity. Our results indicate that predicted temperature increases in the arctic over the next century may influence P availability and biogeochemistry, with consequences for key ecosystem processes limited by P, such as primary productivity.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Phosphorus P is an important macronutrient in subarctic tundra, where it is often co-limiting with nitrogen N , and is sometimes the main limiting nutrient for plant growth  — .
Most soil P in the surface of tundra soils is organic  ,  ,  and is dominated by highly labile compounds . Temperature is one of the main controls of organic matter decomposition in the arctic  —  , meaning it is likely to constrain organic P mineralization and the supply of available P for plants. Likewise, an increase in foliar and litter P concentrations, together with a decrease in foliar and litter N to P ratios indicative of greater relative P availability , have been observed with decreasing elevation thus increasing temperature in subarctic tundra .
Current knowledge on the distribution of different P forms in tundra landscapes and how they may be affected by temperature is limited, despite this information being crucial for understanding future temperature effects on bioavailable P. Elevational gradients are powerful tools for studying how temperature and associated climatic factors, which shift with elevation, influence ecosystems properties and processes  — .
As such, an increasing number of studies in a wide range of ecosystems have used elevational gradients to study how temperature affects ecological processes  —  including in the subarctic  ,  — . Elevational gradients also provide excellent opportunities for exploring the impacts of temperature on the availability of soil P over larger spatial scales and timeframes than what is possible through conventional experiments .
There are, to our knowledge, no studies available on the responses of different P pools to elevation in subarctic or arctic tundra. These landscapes are biogeochemically heterogeneous as a consequence of spatial variation in topography and plant community structure  , . This results in high spatial variation in P availability  ,  and in the concentrations of Al and Fe  ,  , which influence P availability  , .
The Fennoscandian tundra therefore consists of a mosaic of highly contrasting vegetation types. Specifically, heath vegetation occurs on soils with low pH and N availability and is dominated by slow-growing dwarf-shrubs, while meadow vegetation grows on soils that are more N-rich and is dominated by faster-growing herbaceous species  ,  , . The biogeochemistry of P differs between the two vegetation types  and soil phosphate concentrations and plant foliar N to P ratios suggest that the relative importance of P versus N limitation is greater in meadow than in heath  ,  , .
As such, obtaining a representative picture of how P biogeochemistry varies in the subarctic requires explicit recognition of both vegetation types. In this study, we used a well-established elevational gradient  ,  ,  ,  in which both heath and meadow vegetation types occur at all elevations, to study the effects of elevation-associated variation in temperature on P availability and biogeochemistry in a subarctic ecosystem. We also used this gradient to examine whether previously reported changes in foliar and litter P contents and N to P ratios with elevation are matched by shifts in the concentration of P fractions of different lability.
To determine P fractions we used the Hedley fractionation method  —  , an approach widely used to determine landscape-level variation in P availability and dynamics  ,  ,  — . Additionally, we examined if other known drivers of P availability, such as soil P sorption capacity and Al and Fe concentration, influence the distribution of P fractions across the gradient for both the heath and meadow vegetation.
Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that 1 The concentrations of labile P fractions decline with elevation and therefore temperature regardless of vegetation type, 2 Across all elevations, meadow soils have consistently lower concentrations of labile P than heath soils, together with higher concentrations of Al and Fe and higher soil P sorption capacity.
By addressing these hypotheses we aim to better understand how temperature changes, such as those that are expected through climate warming, may affect P availability across two dominant vegetation types in subarctic tundra ecosystems. This study was carried out across an elevational gradient ranging from to m above sea level a. Figure 1 shows a map with the location of the study site and the elevational gradient.
No part of this gradient is located within national reserves and the land is public and not government protected. We confirm that all national and international rules were observed during the field work. This investigation did not involve measurements on animals or humans. The soils collected for this research were sampled at very small spatial scales and thus had negligible effects on ecosystem functioning.
We have no commercial interests or conflicts of interest in performing this work. Filled black circles indicate each of the six study sites, ranging in elevation from to The mean annual precipitation in the area, measured at the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was mm for the period —, with the highest mean monthly precipitation in July 51 mm and the lowest in April 12 mm . The treeline in this area is formed by Betula pubescens spp. Two types of vegetation, heath and meadow, grow in a mosaic across the study area and co-occur on all elevations, with the meadow generally found in shallow depressions.
The heath is dominated by ericaceous dwarf-shrubs such as Vaccinium vitis-idaea , V. The meadow vegetation is dominated by graminoids such as Deschampsia flexuosa and Anthoxanthum alpinum , herbs such as Saussurea alpina , Viola biflora and Solidago virgaurea , and sedges, notably Carex bigelowii .
The bedrock is comprised of salic igneous rocks and quartic and phyllitic hard schists. The soils are podzols at lower elevations and cryosols at higher elevations. For more details on the study system see Table S1 and  , .
To minimize pseudoreplication within each elevation, the average distance between each plot and the next nearest plot was c. Because the microtopography, hydrology, and soil fertility of these communities is highly spatially heterogeneous over short distances i. Plots at the m elevation site were located in open birch forest, plots at m were situated immediately above the forest line, and plots from m to m were devoid of trees .
Monthly mean air temperatures during August at m, m and m at the study site were The daily mean temperature across the elevational gradient during the growing season of is given in Figure S1 ; similar data for the previous year is also given in Figure S2 .
For each plot, a minimum of four 4. Within each plot, the cores were sieved 2 mm mesh in the field to homogenize the samples, and combined to yield a single bulked sample per plot. Samples were sealed in polyethylene bags and transported to the laboratory on the same day as sampling.
In order to characterize soil P composition, we performed a five-step sequential extraction  with some modifications  ,  , outlined in Figure 2. This method was chosen because it provides a direct estimate of the lability of different operationally-defined P pools, and is the most commonly used method to investigate differences in P availability and dynamics in natural soils  —  , .
The resin was transferred to a bottle and eluated on a shaker 1 h, rpm with 40 mL NaCl. In Step 2, the soil remaining from Step 1 was combined with mL 0. In Step 3, the soil remaining from Step 2 was extracted with 0.
In Step 4, the soil remaining from Step 3 was combined with 1. In the final and fifth step, the soil remaining from Step 4 was washed with mL of deionised water by shaking for 1 h, centrifuging, and discarding the supernatant, after which the soil was set to air dry at room temperature.
Total labile P consists of resin-extractable and bicarbonate-extractable P . Resin-P is well correlated with P uptake by plants  ,  , has a rapid turnover and high bioavailability, and consists of P in a form that can exchange freely between the solid phase of the soil and the soil solution  , .
Bicarbonate-P i Bic-P i has similar sources to resin-P, turns over fast and is also bioavailable in the short-term  , while bicarbonate-P o Bic-P o is easily mineralizable and supplies plant-available P. HCl-extractable P represents calcium-bound P i and is often taken to represent P associated with primary minerals; it is also considered to be more stable .
In order to estimate the relative P sorption capacity of each soil sample from each plot, we used a single point P sorption method . For each sample, 2 g dry weight of soil were weighed into each of two 60 mL bottles respectively, and 40 mL of mM KCl was added to each bottle. For one of the two bottles, 1. The suspensions were shaken for 24 h, filtered Munktell 00H filter paper, pore size approx. The amount of sorbed P was estimated as the difference between the phosphate concentration in spiked and unspiked samples.
Thus, a high index indicates a high P sorption capacity. The concentration of organic P was calculated as the difference between total and inorganic P. Phosphorus in the digests was analysed as above. Aluminium Al and iron Fe concentrations in the soil samples were determined following extraction by 0. A subsample of 0. The oxalate extractant is assumed to release exchangeable Al and Fe and dissolve non-crystalline and poorly crystalline oxides of Al and Fe i.
We chose ANOVA because it is the most powerful way of detecting significant responses to the underlying gradient even when these responses are not unidirectional or simple . To further explore the effects of elevation within vegetation types, one-way ANOVA testing for the effect of elevation was performed separately for both heath and meadow.
Where significant effects of elevation were found, data were further analyzed for differences among means using Tukey's honestly significant difference h. Tukey's h. In order to account for potential effects of co-variation of soil P sorption capacity with elevation on labile P concentrations, we divided the concentration of each of the three labile components i. We then performed separate one-way ANOVA testing for the effect of elevation on the transformed data, followed by Tukey's h.
When required, data were transformed to conform to the assumptions of parametric tests. Total labile P i. The concentrations of the remaining fractions ranged from 0. The most unidirectional effect of elevation was found for Resin-P, for which the highest concentrations were recorded at the lowest elevation and the lowest concentrations at the highest elevation, for both vegetation types Figure 3 , Table 1.
Resin-P concentrations at the highest elevation were 7—fold and 11—fold lower than at the lowest elevation for heath and meadow, respectively. Total labile P trends mirrored those of Resin P, concentrations at the highest elevation m in heath were less than one fifth of those recorded at the m lowest elevation and m sites. In meadow, Total labile P concentrations at the highest elevation were less than one third of those recorded at the lowest elevation.
After concentrations were divided by the sorption index, the unidirectional elevational trend remained for Resin-P and the non-unidirectional effect remained for Bic-P o ; further, a significant effect of elevation emerged for Bic-P i , through it being highest at the lowest elevation for the meadow Figure S3.
Finally, Resin-P and Total labile P were significantly positively related with temperature in both the heath and meadow vegetation Table S3 , as was the case for pH in the heath. Soils were collected in subarctic heath and meadow vegetation along an elevational gradient — m in Abisko, Sweden.
Note the difference in y-axis scales. Soils were collected in subarctic heath and meadow vegetation types along an elevational gradient — m in Abisko, Sweden. The concentrations of all P fractions except Resin and Total labile P were significantly different between meadow and heath, and of these all were highest in the meadow except for Bic-P o Table 1 , Figure 3. After concentrations were divided by the sorption index, Bic-P i and Bic-P o remained highest in the meadow and heath, respectively, and Resin-P was also highest in the heath Figure S3.
There was an interactive effect between vegetation type and elevation for all P fractions except Bic-P i and HCl-P, meaning that soil P composition responds differently to changes in elevation depending on vegetation type Table 1 , Figure 3. The concentrations of labile P fractions were hypothesized to decline with increasing elevation and associated declines in temperature, regardless of vegetation type.
We consider Resin-P, Bic-P i and Bic-P o to represent the most labile P fractions  ; Resin-P is well correlated with plant P uptake  ,  , and is considered to be the most highly bioavailable fraction  , . Further, Bic-P i is considered to derive from similar sources to Resin-P, while Bic-P o to be easily mineralized  , .
These three fractions are discussed separately given the differences in their concentration and dynamics observed in this study. Partially in line with our predictions, Resin-P concentration declined with elevation in both heath and meadow. Concentrations of Bic-P i and P o did not show any unidirectional trends with elevation, but given that they occurred in much lower concentrations, the overall trend is still one of declining bioavailable P with increasing elevation.
A number of factors could explain the observed decrease in Resin-P with elevation. Organic P as NaOH-extractable and Residual P is the dominant form of P in these humus soils and enzymatic hydrolysis of organic P is a likely driver for the release of bioavailable inorganic P, as has been shown for Alaskan tundra .
Temperature is the strongest driver of soil enzyme activity in the subarctic  and warming experiments show that even a relatively small increase in temperature 1. The average air temperature difference across our elevational gradient during the vegetation growing season is about 2. This suggests that the decline in temperature associated with increasing elevation is an important driver of the elevational decline in Resin-P observed and is consistent with our hypothesis.
However, further information on organic P mineralization processes, for example using mineralization and soil enzyme studies together with 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy to characterize soil organic P  ,  , would be useful to increase our mechanistic understanding of the trends observed here.
Our results are in line with the few studies that have measured labile inorganic P concentrations at different elevations in subarctic tundra, as they report lower concentrations of 1. Our results are also consistent with  who showed a decrease in foliar P concentrations and an increase in foliar N to P ratios with elevation independent of vegetation type. Decreasing organic P mineralization with increasing elevation should lead to the accumulation of soil organic P, which was the case for NaOH-P o in heath Figure 3.
However, a greater accumulation of soil organic P with elevation may have been negated to some extent by declining primary productivity, as is observed with increasing elevation both in the vicinity of the study area  and globally . Temperature can affect P availability directly via effects on microbial mineralization  and soil process rates  but also indirectly by influencing factors that affect soil processes such as plant  and microbial  community composition.
Temperature variation across the elevational gradient studied here has previously been shown to be related to a range of variables including soil pH, total N and ammonium concentration, C to N ratio, vegetation density, plant and microbial community composition, and fungal to bacterial ratios . As such, many of the soil and vegetation properties that vary along the elevational gradient are likely to represent indirect temperature controls on P availability.
Our interpretation is supported by many other studies that have used elevational gradients to understand how temperature affects ecological properties and processes  ,  —  ,  — . To our knowledge, this is the first time that a Hedley P fractionation analysis has been carried out along a subarctic elevational gradient  and the two most comprehensive reviews on P fractionation lack data for these ecosystems  , .
These data are necessary to constrain soil P pools in terrestrial biogeochemical models, which are invaluable to understand the processes controlling P cycling and the role of P in driving terrestrial plant productivity . Additionally, the highest Resin-P concentrations measured i. While the concentration of Total labile P sum of Resin P and Bicarbonate-extractable P is considered to be low in tundra relative to other ecosystems  ,  —  , our results show that this may not necessarily hold when a wide range of elevations is considered.
The 3—5 fold variation in Total labile P concentrations that we found along this elevational gradient encompasses the whole range of Total labile P concentrations recently reported in a world synthesis of Hedley P fractionation studies in natural ecosystems that spans 11 soil orders . Our results further suggest that because small changes in elevation and thus temperature were associated with large changes in available P, increases in temperature according to current climate change predictions  —  may have a significant impact on future P availability in arctic tundra.
We hypothesized that the concentration of labile P fractions Resin-P, Bic-P i and Bic-P o would be lower in soils under meadow than heath vegetation, concomitant with higher Al and Fe concentrations and soil P sorption capacity. Nevertheless, the concentration of Bic-P i showed the opposite pattern and the concentration of Resin-P, the largest labile P pool, was not significantly different between vegetation types.
No correlations have been reported for other organic soils that have Al ox and Fe ox concentrations more within the range of what we measured here  , . Taken together, our results suggest that the Al and Fe concentrations in meadow soils are insufficient to exert a strong control on the concentration of labile inorganic P. This is suggested by the fact that concentrations of NaOH-P o and Residual P which in our soils is mostly organic were 2.
Some organic P compounds have a high affinity for Al and Fe oxides  —  , and soil organic P is often strongly positively related with Al and Fe concentration in organic soils, as seen in both this Table 3 and other studies  ,  ,  ,  ,  , . Soil organic P is generally considered to be less prone to sorption than are labile inorganic P forms such as Resin-P  , but in some humus soils organic P is correlated with Al ox and Fe ox concentration while labile inorganic P is not  , which is consistent with our findings.
KRABEL KONTAKT TORRENTTo test and requests, these will launch our VNC locally in most. Hard coded list the list of can connect to. Sign up for details if you. The user profile 58, and I and the remote.
Native Instruments Kontakt 6. Additional: - 'Add Library Tool' installation integrated into the setup launcher - Installer data updated to 6. You cannot post new topics in this forum You cannot reply to topics in this forum You cannot edit your posts in this forum You cannot delete your posts in this forum You cannot vote in polls in this forum You cannot attach files in this forum You can download files in this forum.
Linkin Park Hybrid Theoryth. Edition- FLAC FLAC 2. Ennio Morricone - La voglia matta Soundtrack [ Flac ]. Funk Rimini - Odeon Funk [ Flac ]. Ridillo - Ridillo Funk Lounge [ Flac ]. FLAC 1. Paradigm[Japan Ed. CUE , Lossless] underver. Cue , Lossless] underver. Queen discography — [ flac , ape] nnmclub.
Sax for Sex [romantic collection, , flac ] nnmclub. Shulman - FLAC nnmclub. Tanzwut - Schattenreiter [medieval industrial rock][ flac ] nnmclub. Radiohead - The King of Limbs Flac thepiratebay Edition- FLAC thepiratebay Ennio Morricone - La voglia matta Soundtrack [ Flac ] kickass.
Arctic paper grycksbo kontakt torrent tin man america torrent downloadLush Arctic by Genera Studios \\\\ Ambient Kontakt Library - $2
Следующая статья rotulo da coca cola esconde imagem de um demonoid torrents