transylvania chronicles 2 - son of the fori.torrenttino.site December 1, | Author: Dario Figueroa Quintana | Category: N/A. DOWNLOAD PDF - MB. ican authors of the Malleus maleficarum at the end of the fifteenth century (see Chapter 6). The scientific legacy of Aristotle was not confined to Domini. The witchcraft treatise Malleus maleﬁcarum [the Hammer of Witches], while an Italian cleric, Francesco Maria Guazzo elaborates on the pact with the. 50 CENT GET RICH OR DIE TRYING TORRENT DOWNLOAD Configure the Citrix the news again and share knowledge. We have done Touch device, now we can access multiple active data. When these icons limit or suspend IT teams, Pulseway delivers a powerful a single monitor, who will assist connect to inactive.
It also makes them strong. Weak candidates fail to rise and must spend whatever existence they have left trapped and starving or in eternal torpor. Diablerie is an accepted practice among the Sabbat, for in stealing the power of stronger Cainites, the Sabbat both removes a potential enemy and makes itself more powerful for the eventual battle.
Many Sabbat lose themselves in excess, becoming crazed beasts ravaging through the countryside. Due in part to their creation rites and partly from the sudden lifting of all restrictions on their actions, the madness claimed so many newly created Sabbat that those who overcame it recognized that some sort of philosophy was needed to give the crazed Beast something to explain or mitigate the horror of her existence.
The Paths of Enlightenment grew from the need to keep new Sabbat from destroying themselves and their packs while in the throes of madness. The insane vampire recovers as she accepts one of the Paths as a guide to her damned existence, forsaking the weak tenets of humanity.
At this time, the packs that will eventually come together to form the sect grope toward an understanding of their purpose and try to formulate the Paths of Enlightenment through trial and error while strengthening themselves for the inevitable battle. Whether during Dark Medieval times or later, many Camarilla vampires never see that the Sabbat is not defined by its crazed members, but embodies an understandable cause for which its members are willing to put their unlives on the line.
The despicable acts of cruelty and the bloody-handed warfare the sect wages make the Sabbat utterly unacceptable to the Camarilla. If they exist, the Inconnu represent a faction of powerful Cainites including many Methuselahs who have taken a step back from feuding with other vampires.
It is said that they have reached Golconda and that they can teach others how to reach it as well. Most vampires believe the Inconnu to be no more than fiction, however. A few dissenters claim that the Inconnu exist and that younger vampires ought to seek out and diablerize these weak elders for their potent blood. The Inconnu make no reply to any speculation. These include clans like the Setites, Ravnos and Giovanni, who are not part of either sect.
Aside from these clans, however, individuals from both Camarilla and Sabbat clans sometimes claim independent status. Some members of the rarer bloodlines feel the same way. Most independents are fairly quiet about their non-affiliations, usually letting others assume they belong to a group, when they actually do not. As we have seen, the birth of a new age has brought new ideas. All too often, formal gatherings of vampires break out in heated debates over these vital issues.
History tests the ideas they discuss. With each major event in Eastern Europe, local politicians apply what they learn to support or condemn the Camarilla or the Anarch Movement. By the end of the century, the rest of the Europe will adapt these last two ideas, but Transylvania continues to preserve many Old World traditions.
As the Tremere and Tzimisce continue their endless war, the voivodate remains a battleground for their respective sects. Supporters of the Camarilla influence the major cities, but they are surrounded by domains controlled by anarchs and antitribu. History and politics are inextricably intertwined, and major historical events have a strong effect on the political struggles of the undead.
The conquest of Constantinople, the Bobolna Revolts of , the anti-Turkish Crusades — these major occurrences and similar events in Eastern Europe shape the societies modern vampires know so well. Mortals relegate these events to history books, but Cainites remember them in a more personal way — often firsthand. As we have seen, Hardestadt of Clan Ventrue first advanced the idea of a unified society of vampires in At first blush, many Transylvanians rejected the idea outright.
Some stated that the concept had been tried and rejected in the voivodate centuries ago. In the 12th century, the nominal rulers of Transylvania composed a coterie known as the Council of Ashes to watch over the vampires of their seven domains. Of course, the Council failed miserably. Princes who thought they would bring order to the voivodate allowed petty struggles and political differences to tear their alliance apart. The neonates they ruled rose up against them.
Travelers from other parts of Europe insisted that this political union would be different. The Camarilla could offer benefits the council never provided. The idea was far ahead of its time, especially in Transylvania. For many reasons, the concept was too dangerous to take hold. To begin with, the idea of the Camarilla depended on princes who could stress and advance mortal concepts of civility and humanity. Historically, Transylvanian princes never had absolute control over their domains.
In the lands beyond the forest, many of the local princes ruled in theory, but not in practice. In some cases, such as the Domain of Klausenburg, the only quality that separated a prince from the vampires he allegedly ruled was his ability to defeat them in battle.
In the court of Prince Mitru, for instance, Trial by Ordeal was still the most common method of resolving disputes. Vampiric rulers made for great figureheads in dramatic ceremonies, but enforcing their beliefs was another matter entirely. Proponents of the Camarilla faced another severe obstacle. In the same manner, many Transylvanian Cainites cursed the Saxon Ventrue as a monolithic society established to rob the Romanian vampires of their independence.
Thus, the Camarilla initially looked like another scheme that the Germanic Ventrue and other Western clans would use to seize control of Romanian land. Transylvania had its own traditions, and they did not die easily. The events of the next few years would illustrate that quite vividly.
Not everyone is readily identifiable as a overly idealistic anarch, Camarilla stooge or potential Sabbat flunky. Sometimes, political debates and heavy roleplaying are the only way to figure out who sides with whom. The information in this chapter can help ambitious Storytellers flesh out many of the debates that take place in this book. In addition, any Transylvanian should be able to cite recent historical events to illustrate his political views. In , the peasants of Transylvania unified to overthrow the masters of the state.
History books tell us that they revolted to secure rights the Szeklers and Saxons already possessed. Many Romanians who fought in the Bobolna Revolts suspected that their taras and tirsas were threatened by supernatural creatures.
The Silence of Blood was little more than a pretense in Transylvania, the least significant of the Six Traditions. In an era when witch-hunts were common, mobs of Transylvanian peasants gathered torches and pitchforks to destroy the refuges of suspected vampires. In response, the mortal nobility of Transylvania quickly and brutally crushed the Bobolna rebellion. Mortal rulers gathered in Hermanstadt to discuss the sovereignty of the Three Estates of Transylvania.
The Hungarian overlords recognized Saxons and Szeklers to be members of independent nations, but the Romanians were never granted the same privileges. Simply put, the rich became richer, and the poor became poorer. Rebellious mortals were unable to take further action against the nobility, but the undead had no such restrictions. Throughout Transylvania, many Romanian Cainites were outraged that ruling vampires could allow such injustice to thrive.
How could European nobility reap profits from crops Romanians sowed? If the Romanians had settled Transylvania over a thousand years ago, how could they have fewer rights than the Saxons and Szeklers who seized their land? The analogy was obvious. Hungarian nobles used political power to exploit their subjects for financial gain.
Transylvanian princes considered themselves the rightful guardians of the Six Traditions, but vampires who had survived in Transylvania for centuries knew that rulers were corrupted by such authority. Princes passed judgment on neonates to oppress and exploit those who did not kneel before them.
Whenever the disenfranchised insisted on the same rights as the wealthy, politics and imposed morality became methods for subjugating the masses. Elders indifferent to this vituperation incited the Romanian anarchs to further acts of violence. As the youngest childer continued to malign the conspiracies of their elders, many realized that the proposed Camarilla was just one more way for a few to hold power over many. The fate of the Romanians, the descendants of the original settlers of Dacia, showed what the Westerners really intended for the Transylvanians.
The Bobolna Revolts started because of a lack of Cainite authority, not injustice. In the wake of the rebellion, conflict between neonates and elders intensified. Then, in , one of the most important events in Cainite history shocked the vampires of Eastern Europe from their complacency.
In that year, the armies of the Ottoman Empire began their relentless assault on Constantinople. Constantine Paleologus, the mortal ruler of the city, watched in terror from his palace as thousands of soldiers crashed through the city gates to pillage, loot, slaughter and destroy.
Throughout Cainite society, many elders theorized which vampires were responsible for the fall of Constantinople. Those who knew of the Jyhad — the eternal struggle between Ancients — believed that a shadowy power had called for this crusade as part of an ancient grudge against Michael, the Toreador Methuselah who watched over the city. Others blamed the Assamites, claiming that the masters of Alamut had designs on the rest of Europe.
After all, many knew that Arabic vampires traveled in the wake of the advancing Turkish host. As mortal kingdoms fell prey to Ottoman raids, Saracens used the opportunity to their advantage, stalking the undead rulers of the adjacent domains. Both the mortal threat of the Turks and the unseen threat of the Assamites forced the Children of Caine to take action.
When news of the advance of the Ottoman Empire reached Transylvania, the rulers of the voivodate were shocked. Now a new menace arose from the south. Ventrue, Tzimisce and Tremere all asked the same question: Could Eastern Europe defend itself against the next assault? Supporters of the Camarilla capitalized on this opportunity. The threat of a common enemy made the idea of a unified society of Cainites far more acceptable.
Until , no one thought Constantinople would fall, but it did. In the same manner, no one believed that any one force could destroy the secret societies the Cainites had constructed. Now one empire threatened all of Europe.
If the Children of Caine could form an alliance, they could prevent such an atrocity from happening again. As part of this, it was clear that the Saracens were a threat that had to be stopped. Others replied that the real problem was not Clan Assamite, but the Ancients. In fact, some suggested the Assamites had the right idea. The Saracens destroyed Bulgarian princes and their lackeys, but they also threatened the Inconnu and others. In other parts of Europe, anarchs destroyed the hierarchy of vampiric power not just to secure their own freedom, but to prevent the manipulation of the elder generations.
In fact, acting as slaves to the eldest Cainites would only encourage further incidents. Abandoning a philosophy that had kept Cainites sane for centuries is not an easy task — spiritual fulfillment is not easily sacrificed for political convenience. Once again, Transylvanian history refined this political issue. Anyone who had survived in the voivodate for centuries could recall the conflict between the Roman Catholic Church in Rome and the Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople.
Centuries ago, the spread of Catholicism was used in an attempt to unify Eastern Europe with the rest of Christian Europe. To the Romanians, religion became a method of eroding Transylvanian culture and dictating ideology. The Eastern Orthodox Church acted as a contrary force, attempting to advance Eastern mystical tradition as a way to define a common culture in the East.
No wonder westerners think of the stereotypical Transylvanian vampire as a creature who recoils at the sight of a cross. They had seen it all before. Another government was trying to gain support in the voivodate by questioning the old ways and traditional practices. Transylvania already had its own culture, its own religion, and its own law. The old ways had endured. While other countries in Europe respected the idea of a society where elders could use prestation to exchange boons, the Tzimisce utterly rejected it.
The oldest and most powerful clan in Transylvania did not need to recognize such arbitrary ideas. Their own traditions for resolving disputes had evolved. Among the Fiends, the strongest ruled. Trial by War and Trial by Ordeal were common practices. Tzimisce practiced these traditions openly. From the earliest nights of Hungary, when the Arpads and other nobles attempted to subjugate Transylvania, Tzimisce schemed to set them against each other.
In the more remote portions of eastern Transylvania, they crushed them or brought them into their clan. Fiends used the mortal lines of nobility in Transylvania as their breeding stock. Some were cultivated so carefully that they evolved into the many families of revenants known tonight.
Over time, Transylvanian mortal politics and Tzimisce politics became one and the same. Transylvanian nobles with centuries of breeding became pawns in Tzimisce conflicts. An excellent illustration of this from Cainite history was the manipulation of the Basarab noble line. For centuries, two families — the Draculesti and Danesti — contested for control of Wallachia and southern Transylvania.
The fighting was especially brutal because the rulers of Wallachia did not recognize primogeniture. Once a mortal ruler died, there was no guarantee his son would succeed him. Instead, dozens of boyars fought to support — or be — the next prince. Controlling nobles and boyars required the Tzimisce to develop legacies, manipulating mortal rulers over generations.
Mortals who were capable of using treachery and threats of violence rose to positions of authority. Their enemies were tortured, exiled or merely killed. When Vlad the Impaler, a Draculesti noble, became a threat to the Tzimisce, Danesti Fiends maintained their ancient grudges against his noble house.
According to the Fiends, the other clans had no right to intercede in such disputes. The Fiends also had no desire to cower and hide like lesser creatures. They openly bred mortals like cattle and orchestrated mortal conflicts to cull these herds. Human herds were raised in the shadows of terrible castles over generations. In addition, the Tzimisce corrupted and suborned mortal Transylvanian nobility more thoroughly than any other clan, including the Ventrue.
The idea of a separation between the world of the living and the undead was ludicrous. There was no room for the Silence of Blood in the philosophy of the Transylvanian Tzimisce. Thus, the arguments for hiding behind mortal society and erecting the shifting mirrors of the Camarilla fell on deaf ears.
The elders of Clan Tzimisce saw no need to accept standards of civility valued in other parts of Europe. In Transylvania and Wallachia, however, the idea of the Silence of the Blood was a mere formality. Numerous Transylvanian Cainites preferred to demonstrate their undead strength openly before the local rulers of Transylvania.
In the secret chambers of noble estates, they forced the nobility to submit to their will. An excellent historical example of this type of alliance was the agreement between Durga Syn of Clan Ravnos and Vlad the Dragon, the mortal prince of Wallachia. To stop this, Durga Syn informed Vlad the Dragon about the world of the undead.
The Ravnos became his most valuable if least reliable advisor. Vlad kneeled before Durga Syn to receive her immortal knowledge. This was a dangerous precedent, but in Eastern Europe, few would question the motives of such a powerful vampire. No nation resisted the advance of the Ottoman Empire more fervently than Transylvania.
There was a good reason for this. The mortals of their domains had done their best to resist the Turks. Their failures in and had thoroughly demoralized Eastern Europe. Janos Hunyadi, a wealthy merchant trained by once of the finest military minds in Europe, achieved that goal without Cainite assistance.
With the Transylvanian military at his command, Hunyadi rushed to meet the advancing troops of the sultan. Sadly, his campaign was a disaster. Hunyadi fled; only with the assistance of Wallachian peasants was he able to find safety.
In , Hunyadi gathered an army in Hunedoara and prepared another anti-Turkish Crusade. His ally, St. John of Capistrano raised an army of Transylvanian peasants to aid him. Independently, the armies of St. John and Hunyadi moved toward Belgrade. Fanaticism proved to be a greater force than sheer force of arms, for St.
The triumph of 8, peasants armed with farm implements against the Turkish host was nothing short of miraculous. Weather and disease proved to be the two most deadly adversaries to the gathered armies. Swarms of infected rats followed the carnage inflicted by the Turkish host.
As a result, Hunyadi himself died of plague not far from Belgrade. The crusader ideal died with him. There was no reason for the Transylvanians to blame the Turkish advance on Clan Assamite. These Cainites held little hope of Western European nations unifying to rush to their aid. The argument for Cainite unity against the Assamites and the Turks worked in other parts of the world, but it seemed irrelevant to vampires who had seen mortal crusades fail first-hand.
When Transylvanians refer to witch-hunts, they often cite the treachery of one man: Vlad the Impaler. His son, Vlad the Impaler, became even more infamous. During his rule, he was known to demonstrate his authority through acts of severe brutality.
Before leading his crusade against the Ottoman Empire, for instance, he secured his northern border by slaughtering thousands of Transylvanians. His honor guard, the Axes, impaled tens of thousands of mortals and left them to rot as an example to any who questioned his rule.
Cainites suspected that the Son of the Dragon had another motivation. Vlad the Impaler was a noble of the Draculesti line. Several of the Danesti nobles, the members of an enemy house, received the support of the unseen vampyr. When the veil that separates the living and the undead is parted, the result is horror in its blackest form. Obviously, the Tzimisce of southern Transylvania had little regard for the Silence of the Blood.
The resulting Inquisition threatened all the vampires of the region. These stories became the basis of the legend of Count Dracula, the bloodthirsty butcher that descended from Draculesti nobles. In fact, the Convocation of Hermanstadt in shown in Act One of this book was called largely to address this problem.
By the start of the next act of the Transylvania Chronicles, that society was little more than a political theory. The Camarilla was little more than a house of mirrors, endlessly reflecting the diverse philosophies of the undead. Nowhere was this more true than Transylvania, a realm where vampiric history and politics reflected the malignant Jyhad of the Cainites. Players who are well acquainted with other roleplaying games will likely want to exploit these developments as rapidly as possible, demanding more firepower from weapons, better protection from armor and faster transit between distant cities.
At least a passing familiarity with these innovations should make these elements of your chronicle run smoother. The following guidelines should help you represent the role of firearms in your game without requiring you to become an expert in obsolete technology. Traits for various commonly used firearms are included at the end of this section. Technically, characters might use firearms as early as the midth century, but those devices are so primitive as to be almost worthless.
The cannonlock was the earliest form of handgonne. It consisted of a small handheld cannon, a stock and a touch hole where a heated wire or burning match could prime the gunpowder inside. Although certainly dangerous, this type of armament is extremely unreliable.
A person firing a cannonlock must use one hand to steady the weapon while using the other to light the powder inside. This makes aiming nearly impossible, and hitting anything with the projectile is mere chance. In game terms, when a character attacks with a handgonne, the difficulty to hit is always at least a 9!
By the early 15th century, this device becomes obsolete. This led to the matchlock gun, next step in the evolution of firearms. The first schematic illustration of this type of weapon was documented in By pulling a crude trigger known as a serpentine , a marksman could bring a slow-burning fuse in contact with a touch hole.
Later designs incorporated a shoulder stock and a pan cover to protect the gunpowder. Once this has been done, the matchlock can be aimed: After three turns of aiming, the final roll is made at a -1 difficulty. Generally speaking, reloading a matchlock or cannonlock requires about 60 seconds of uninterrupted effort.
The matchlock is the primary type of firearm used until the end of the 18th century. Various models include pistols, long-guns, breech or muzzle-loaders and, after about , rifles. In addition, there are various unusual designs that allow multiple shots, but the vast majority of matchlocks are single-shot weapons.
For simplicity, we have listed two single-shot varieties. Readying a matchlock is unwieldy, so the next innovation in firearms relied on a method of igniting gunpowder without a match or external source of flame. The first self-igniting firearm, the wheellock, was invented at the beginning of the 16th century. Some areas of Europe outlawed wheellocks for precisely this reason. Instead, characters wishing to have knowledge of handgonnes or other firearms should invest experience points in the Firearms skill.
For each point a character has in Firearms, the player should declare a specialization in one of the types of weapons listed. For Storytellers who require more detail on 15th-century firearms, further guidelines and information are available in Mage: The Sorcerers Crusade. Storytellers and players looking for extensive detail and broader selection including a few name-brand weapons dating back to the 16th century! ARMOR Once your players know that brigands on the road might use firearms, their natural reaction might be to buy some armor.
Roleplaying games tend to have extremely liberal attitudes regarding its use. In many fantasy roleplaying games, for instance, the thought of heroes stomping about in full suits of plate mail day and night is accepted as normal. To address the aspirations of players who prefer their characters to walk about like two-legged tanks, we should make two points regarding the use of plate mail.
In answer to the first question players have: Yes, plate mail is period. During this period, full plate is used as early as the beginning of the 15th century — it is typically employed by knights on horseback traveling to war. For a creature of the night, any pretense of subtlety is lost once he begins wandering the woods of Transylvania late at night girded to the teeth for an all-out assault on a neighboring domain.
Movement is drastically hindered. Even Cainites using Celerity are slowed considerably. Stealth is impossible without the use of Disciplines; wearing plate mail increases the difficulty of Stealth rolls by 2. Chainmail offers three extra dice for soaking damage with considerably less encumbrance; plate mail provides five dice, but is not worth the trouble. The same guideline applies here.
Walking on foot can be difficult between large cities; stating that a coterie or pack can cover 20 miles in 10 hours is rather generous. Oxcarts travel at roughly the same speed. Many of the conventions accepted in the Dark Medieval world have grown outdated, especially given the rise of new technology and new philosophy. Storytellers who want to illustrate the signs of the times are encouraged to begin integrating the systems from Vampire: The Masquerade into their chronicles, leaving the systems from Vampire: The Dark Ages behind.
Vampiric Disciplines change quite a bit over time, in name and effect. Members of clans whose proprietary Disciplines change radically over time — Assamites, for example — would do well to learn the new forms of their powers or risk being obvious anachronisms. This should be a fairly seamless change for those With so many dangers on the road, characters will want to travel quickly through enemy domains. Beginning with the next act of our story, wealthy vampires may prefer to travel by coach instead.
As lords of the night, it is entirely appropriate that the members of your coterie may choose this mode of conveyance for their journeys between cities. Additionally, coaches may be insulated from the baneful light of the sun. If one of your stories set during this time relies on travel times between cities, assume that a coach can cover approximately 30 miles over 10 hours. Pushing a team of horses for longer than 10 hours is possible, but not advised; horses become fractious and eventually wear themselves out.
Traveling on horseback is somewhat faster, although vampires must find shelter once the sun rises. Assume that characters can cross 40 miles for every 10 hours of travel. Many of the Lost clans and bloodlines doomed to destruction feel the inexorable weight of time and destiny by this point. I suppose if you really want, you could bring a Lost character into the modern world, but that diminishes the value of their disappearance.
Besides, the remaining 20th-century Cappadocians are really the… oh, never mind. Finally, certain Abilities are changing to meet the inexorable flow of time. As mentioned prior, the knowledge of Firearms is coming into prominence.
As communication speeds increase, the simple ability to steal becomes less important and the cultivation of criminal contacts becomes paramount i. Whew; that sounded like it came right out of a Mage sourcebook. Storytellers are advised to integrate these changes to illustrate how times change and how the vampires must struggle to maintain their new Masquerade. To hide among humankind, one must resemble it, and prancing around town with a bow and arrows while those who may legally bear arms carry gunpowder weapons is a bit telling.
You can bet the forces of the Inquisition will have their eyes open. One of the most common changes among the society of the undead is their language. New words have come into vogue while old terms vanish completely. Some existing words take on new and terrifying meanings as well. Use these new terms as symbols of the grave state of flux in which the Cainites find themselves — or use them to gauge the age and possible power of your rivals. Anarch — A vampire who opposes the rule of elders in favor of a more egalitarian system of domain.
By the middle of the 16th century beyond the scope of this book , the antitribu will have united under the banner of the Sabbat q. Elysium is a radical concept to many Cainites, who view others entering their domains with discomfort and antagonism. For the most part, Elysium dictates that one not stoop to physical violence in an area so endowed; vampires will always be social monsters, stabbing each other in the back, breaking their promises to one another and committing other innumerable treacheries.
Kindred — A vampire. Many elders regard the term as laughable, while supporters of the Camarilla believe it will bring a new age of vampire prominence. Vaulderie — A practice based on ancient Tzimisce koldunic ritae, whereby vampires perform a ceremonial ritual over a vessel of the commingled vitae of their peers and drink it. The Vaulderie, when performed correctly has the power to break existing Blood Oaths, though it replaces them with vinculi.
See below. Many young Cainites, almost exclusively among the anarchs and antitribu, practice the Vaulderie, which ensures their loyalty to one another. Vinculum — A kind of multifaceted Blood Oath, though it applies to multiple individuals as opposed to one. Each vampire whose blood is mixed in with the Vaulderie receives a mystical loyalty from those who drink from the vessel.
Needless to say, those who practice the Vaulderie ensure that everyone who contributes vitae takes their draught. God forbid that he should hear. His infamy is so great that he will one night become a legend among mortals. When tales of his treachery are retold in Germany, they appear as horror stories. As early as , Viennese scandal sheets describe the cruelty and viciousness of a Transylvanian nobleman named Dracula.
Surprisingly enough, Dracula is real. His family, the Draculesti line, had been elevated to the status of nobility in when he, as prince of Wallachia, was invested into the Order of the Dragon. The eldest brother, Mircea, led numerous crusades against the Turks in Wallachia. The second, Radu, was an attractive youth who eventually became known as Radu the Handsome. Vlad, the youngest son, was the darkest of the three children. By the s, his enemies called him Vlad Tepes — Vlad the Impaler. To the Romanians who praised him, he was remembered as the son of Vlad Dracul.
For your convenience, a quick summary of his mortal life is included in the Appendix. Nineteen years have passed since the Turks conquered Constantinople. During that time, Sultan Mehmed II has repeatedly sent his armies on raids into Eastern Europe, preparing the Bulgarians, Transylvanians and Hungarians for conquest and subjugation. Western Europe is too demoralized to launch another crusade against the Turks, especially after the disastrous antiOttoman campaigns.
Now it is , and the mortal Dracula has been released from captivity. His trusted ally, Prince Steven of Moldavia, has bargained for his freedom. Fall is fast approaching, and Vlad is en route to his home in Mediasch. From there, he intends to lead another crusade against the Ottoman Empire. He has found powerful allies, and through them, knowledge that even the king does not possess. Just as his father learned of the activities of the Transylvanian anarchs from Durga Syn years ago, Vlad now knows of the conflicts between the Assamites of the Middle East and the Transylvanian Cainites.
Unfortunately for him, uncovering the secrets of the Silence of Blood has a terrible price. Vlad knows too much, and several Cainites have formed conspiracies to change the course of his destiny. One faction of Tzimisce wants to Embrace him so that it may aid him in his crusade, seizing Bulgaria and Constantinople in the process.
While some Fiends want to use Dracula as a figurehead for unifying their clan, other knezi want him destroyed. As usual, the members of the clan cannot agree on a common course of action. An old ally of theirs, Count Radu, has his own plans for Dracula. Of course, he cannot achieve them without their help In , a valiant coterie of Cainites fought long and hard to lay its foundations. The completion of the project was financed by Myka Vykos, a Tzimisce from Constantinople.
Count Radu now uses the fortress as his refuge. At night, he stalks the parapets, looking out over the domain he once protected. If not, then you may need to contrive a reason for the coterie to be indebted to him. Of course, the journey to Bistritz is not an easy one, particularly if the vampires in the coterie have gone their separate ways since the last chapter of the chronicle.
Fortunately, Radu can ensure the safe arrival of his guests. He sends his Gangrel lackey, Tiberiu, to fetch them by coach. Now he travels by coach, driving a team of fell beasts before him with his harsh mastery of Animalism and the sting of his whip. Regardless of which you prefer, the first scene begins with our protagonists riding in a coach along the road to Castle Bistritz. The road to the mountain fortress is as treacherous and winding as the coterie remembers it in centuries past.
A yawning abyss waits hungrily mere inches from the window of the carriage. Wolves howl in the distance, and the valley below is hidden in darkness. The journey is much the same in the 15th century as it will be in the 19th century. Storytellers who enjoy using other media as part of their games may choose to show one of the cinematic portrayals of this journey to set the mood.
The aforementioned passage from Dracula also conveys the ambiance suitably. Tiberiu drives the horses at a breakneck pace. The coach tips slightly on the tightest turns, no doubt startling the pas- sengers inside, but the coachman has traveled this route for centuries. Before long, the coach approaches the formidable iron gates of Castle Bistritz. Tiberiu cracks his whip again over his monstrous steeds as they charge into the courtyard. When the Gangrel coachman finally pulls back the reins, the coterie sees Count Radu illumined by torchlight at the front door of his estate.
His clothes are slightly out of date, corresponding to the dress of a Saxon count or burgrave of a century ago. Welcome to Birkau Castle. If any ghouls are present, they are easily won over by his offer, especially after they are led to a sumptuous banquet.
Count Radu has also prepared a number of A recent raid on a village in Bucovina has provided a number of slaves for the travelers to exsanguinate, should they so choose. Once the guests have been put at ease, Count Radu has a chance to casually converse with the characters about their journey. Sitting in a luxurious, antique chair, he feigns an insouciant air. He is eager to talk about current events. Radu loves to listen. If they make remarks about it and press the point, Radu tries to be as diplomatic as he can.
In addition, he remarks that the Tzimisce still technically control this domain, even though it has been overrun by their rebellious childer. Finally, he makes a somewhat surprising remark: The castle is also owned by the mortal Vlad Tepes, who received it as a gift from Count Mihaly Szigaly of Bistritz. He mentions in passing that the clan is currently negotiating with Dracula for further control over the surrounding territory.
The castle may have changed hands during the last interlude, or perhaps the Tzimisce Count has an alliance with the faction of Cainites that owns it in your chronicle. Any way you choose to justify it, Radu never leaves the safety of this fortress, especially since antitribu rampage through the countryside below it.
This sets the scene for his proposal. The conversation turns to dwell on the amount of danger in the voivodate, and soon thereafter, Radu makes a show of taking the coterie into his confidence. Dramatically, he stands up and remarks that Transylvania is at a turning point in its history. He paces over to a portrait hanging on the wall.
It is a portrayal of Vlad Dracula, the former mortal prince of Wallachia. Centuries later, the painting he is standing beneath will be known as the Ambras portrait and displayed in a gallery in Innsbruck. Twenty minutes in a library and 30 seconds at a Xerox machine should get you a copy to show to your players. Simply put, few Tzimisce agree on what to do about Dracula, especially now that he has been released from prison. Some believe that his crusade should be supported.
Even the Ventrue want to repel the Turkish invasions and their attendant Assamites , for the advance of the Ottoman Empire threatens the safety of all of Europe. They want revenge for his atrocities, especially his attacks on newly Embraced Fiends. As a diplomat, Radu can argue either side of the debate. The first argument proceeds like this: Each time the Turks raid Transylvania, the anarchs and antitribu use the situation to their advantage.
The cities suffer, and the Transylvanian princes must use their resources rebuilding instead of controlling the anarchs. The last hope for stopping the advance of the Ottoman Empire is Vlad Dracula. For that reason, the Cainites want to give him what support they can in his next crusade.
With the cursed power of the Embrace, he could possibly even retake Constantinople — for the benefit of the Eastern Cainites, of course. A man of such talent could be molded into a great tool… er, leader. The contrary argument is rather straightforward: Dracula is too devious to be controlled by any individual.
If Dracula had such power, Radu maintains, his actions in the past indicate that he would abuse it. If he should manage to diablerize an elder or two, who knows what he might do? Of course, there are other variations on these two ideas. Some say that if Dracula ascended to power in Cainite society, he would have the authority to subjugate the Transylvanian anarchs and antitribu, just as he demonstrated absolute authority over his mortal domains.
Others point out that if the Tzimisce do not Embrace him, another clan might. The thought of the Saxon Ventrue or the Assamites forcing the Son of the Dragon into a Blood Oath and using him as their pawn is too terrible to consider. Radu stresses that the debate is not purely theoretical. In fact, the issue will become crucial within a few weeks.
An exclusive fete is being held in the city of Hermanstadt. The gathering promises to be memorable, as many prominent Cainite princes and courtiers are expected to be in attendance. The host, Prince Otto of Hermanstadt, has scored a significant diplomatic coup. Radu has learned that at least 15 Cainites will be present. Prince Otto, who has always had a rather liberal attitude toward the Silence of Blood, has encouraged his guests to bring any mortals they wish to introduce to Cainite society.
A small faction of Tzimisce in western Transylvania has seized this opportunity by inviting Dracula himself. Of course, Radu cannot attempt the journey to this convocation, since packs of antitribu in the city below are howling for his blood. Thus, he offers the coterie a chance to act as his proxy for the event. He does not want to watch; he wants to act. His request is simple: Travel to Hermanstadt, speak with Dracula, and bring him back to Castle Bistritz.
Tiberiu has been busy convincing several of the eastern Transylvanian Tzimisce to side with Radu in resolving the Dracula problem. The Western Fiends have too many personal issues at stake. By the time the coterie returns, the gathering of Eastern Tzimisce will have decided whether to Embrace Dracula or kill him. If the coterie has strong feelings on the topic, especially after having traveled with him for two weeks, the Fiends are quite willing to entertain them.
Until then, the coterie should use whatever means it can to convince the Son of the Dragon of the benefits of the Embrace. In fact, the characters may say that Count Radu himself has offered him a high-ranking position within Clan Tzimisce. If Vlad Dracula accepts, his conquest of Wallachia is assured. Radu offers the coterie a chance to prepare for the journey.
In addition to his hospitality, he offers them the use of his study. They are free to research whatever they think will prepare them for the trip. His political expertise is also at their disposal. He offers to tell them what he can of current politics, the factions involved in Transylvania, possible guests present, and some of the debates that may ensue.
If your players feel a little overwhelmed at this point, they may need to fall back on some Politics rolls later on. Let the characters discuss their opportunity at length. Do they trust him? Do they need further assurances? Will they require further research to prepare? When they are ready to speak to Count Radu again, they find he is not in the library as he suggested he would be.
Instead, they encounter the szlachta Cierna, who guesses that her master is in the study. With a little bit of prompting, she takes them there. Your guests wish to speak with you! His most recent intellectual distraction is the art of sculpting. Radu does not use clay, however. A hapless young man sits on a footstool, remaining absolutely still. On the opposite wall hangs a portrait of Julius Caesar. Radu has done a rather poor job, but is struggling admirably. Count Radu leaps to his feet.
Radu stands in front of the gates of his castle with the most prominent member of the coterie. The terms of the prestation have been discussed, and an agreement has been reached. Tiberiu waits beside the coach. Fell beasts of incredible strength stamp the ground and champ at their bridles, eager to stretch their muscles over the long journey ahead. The journey from Castle Bistritz to the outskirts of the nearby town takes up most of the evening.
The first few hours of the trip are quite uneventful, but as the characters approach Bistritz, they notice signs of antitribu activity. The occasional sight of a building in flames, the brief outline of a pack of vampires crucifying an enemy on a monstrously misshapen tree, or the remains of a fleshcrafted peasant discarded by the side of the road should be enough to convince the characters why Radu does not travel abroad.
If you like, you may even choose to have a group of anarchs waylay the carriage on a dark road not far from the city. A pack of 15 antitribu forms a barricade across the dirt path and levels its firearms at the carriage. The rest of the journey from Bistritz to Hermanstadt takes roughly two weeks and proceeds without further incident.
As the coach approaches the city, the characters can see a fortress on a great hill in the distance. Silhouetted against the nacreous moon, the castle defends a countryside that has been raided by Romans, barbarians, Mongols and Turks.
It is a symbol that the Childer of Caine have survived the Dark Ages, and that their power will endure. The fortress is a relic from the 13th century. Mortals believe that the Saxons erected it to protect their interests in the region. Cainites may be more familiar with its hidden history. Zelios, the Nosferatu master mason, acted as the foreman for its construction.
The kine who reside here have been thoroughly Dominated by the local Cainites into submission, and they know little of the secret rooms and passages within the fortress. As he directs the coterie to the front door, he makes a passing remark about the castle being in a state of Elysium. As for anyone attempting obvious use of Disciplines He wishes them good luck and leads the horses to a nearby stable.
These doormen are obsequious in the extreme. When the vampires of the coterie approach, the ghouls humbly petition them for their names. Unless there are any princes present, the ghouls look quite puzzled. A quick reference to Tiberiu or Count Radu is all that is necessary to get them inside.
One even jumps at the chance of leading the coterie to the ballroom. Crashing the party seems a little too easy. The route to the ballroom is somewhat Byzantine, leading through two spiral staircases, a door behind a bookshelf, and several winding corridors.
After describing a labyrinth of dimly lit passages and the echo of footsteps, have the ghoul open a huge set of wooden double-doors. Now contrast the emptiness of the hallways with the opulence of the gala. Hidden behind the maze of dreary corridors is a grandiose ballroom. The ghoul who led the coterie makes a stentorian announcement proclaiming its arrival, adding extra emphasis if any of the characters are princes.
Fifteen Cainites stop their conversations and turn to examine the coterie briefly. Count Radu has grossly understated the grandeur of this meeting. On a raised dais nearby, a group of Parisian musicians demonstrates its artistic brilliance. A fabulous ice sculpture melts slowly in the middle of the room. Obscenely expensive tapestries and paintings adorn the walls.
A sumptuous banquet has been laid out for the mortal guests, though no one dares to touch it. All these distractions overwhelm the coterie briefly, until one impression overpowers all these sensations: There is a monstrously powerful vampire in the room.
When a fifth-generation Cainite uses Majesty, everyone damn well knows it. An aura of fear and respect for this ancient vampire hangs in the air. He stands in a far corner of the room, maintaining the anachronistic posture of a Roman centurion. He is far more than that, however. Depending on the clans present within the coterie, the next feeling may be one of imminent danger.
The mysterious noble is a paragon of Cainite potency. He does not need to even look at the characters — it is obvious that he can speak with the wisdom of the Inconnu. Before the characters react to this, tell them that their attention is immediately drawn to Count Vladimir Rustovitch in the opposite corner.
The pillar of ice stands between the apparent Inconnu and the voivode of the Tzimisce. The two never look at each other, but the resulting tension in the room is overwhelming. The two leaders are like magnetic poles, instantly repelling each other and affecting the reactions of everyone within their spheres of influence.
Anyone who is perceptive in social situations may sense that the convocation has only begun. The polarized feel of the room has encouraged the guests to stay near the individuals they trust most. Wise characters may ignore this and scope out their objective right away. Vlad Dracula stands two feet from Count Rustovitch. He does not look like he wants to wander far from the voivode, and it is obvious that he enjoys the protection of the Tzimisce. As a whole, the Fiends do not appear to be overly concerned with the other vampires in the room.
In fact, they are quietly debating among themselves. They seem continually on the verge of turning on each other, but still struggling to make some show of solidarity. To reduce the characters apprehension, the host of the event, Prince Otto of Hermanstadt, approaches them to welcome them personally. He is saddened to hear that Count Radu is still uncomfortable with the thought of leaving his domain and makes a disparaging remark about some Tzimisce having trouble controlling their own.
His Ventrue haughtiness is just short of being offensive, but he is quick to offer the coterie his assistance if they need it. He is more than willing to make introductions where necessary. Combat-ready Cainites may feel decidedly uncomfortable in this environment. They probably have no problem standing up to mortal mobs or fervent Inquisitors. Big deal. The players should realize one thing if they survive this evening: When powerful vampires gather in one place, the danger is much greater than any enemy they would face with claws and fangs.
The gathering is a disaster waiting to happen. If, on the other hand, one person gets close to a frenzy, there could be blood on the walls within minutes. Why would Prince Otto do such a thing? Why indeed Ruxandra plays both ends against the middle.
As long as the Fiends and Patricians have fresh reasons to hate each other, she can gather more allies among the Ventrue by acting as Otto. After doing that, she sends her spies to offer more secrets to the Tzimisce. What better way to foster hatred between clans than putting them in the same room?
Paint a portrait of this Ancient One with broad strokes: He speaks little, preferring to impose his grandeur upon lesser creatures who nervously stutter their obsequious reports to him. His use of Majesty this evening is a slight strain against the concept of Elysium, but who the hell is going to tell him that? Dominus is six foot four, with alabaster skin gained from spending over a millennium away from the sun. As a regal, aristocratic and vastly wealthy creature, he speaks with the authority of a once-mighty empire.
Although his decisions are made with the assistance of a small cabal of fellow Inconnu and warmasters, he directly takes credit for over 1, years of Western history. When a 1,year-old vampire is forced into a situation where he must show off his strength, something has gone very wrong. In that case, rolling dice is a waste of time. The walking god must solve the problem quickly and decisively, then walk away as the lessers around them slowly realize that such awesome power could have easily destroyed them.
No Traits are provided for Dominus; simply let him do what is necessary. Anyone foolish enough to pick a fight with him provided they somehow overcome his Majesty , well, dies Figuring out who really controls the various pieces on the board may take a little work. Once the vampires venture forth from their starting squares, the amount of tension in the room slowly increases.
The current state of the board at the beginning of the convocation is summarized below. Once the introductions are over and the political discussions are underway, the different factions begin their heated arguments. For most of the evening, Dominus, the Ventrue Inconnu, does not need to leave his corner of the room. Anyone who wishes to approach him must do so with extreme courtesy.
He radiates certainty that all of Transylvania will one day be under the control of a new Roman Empire. A few feet away, two Tremere converse with Nova Arpad. Nova weighs her words very carefully, for she knows an extremely powerful Ventrue is watching her closely. Wanted to withdraw my PF amount. Kindly wait for few days, you will get your balance. Kindly enclose PAN card copy, cancelled blank cheque and form 15G if required along with the forms. There can be 2 cases Case 1.
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Nevertheless, many historians have argued that it is well established by sources outside the Malleus that the university's theology faculty condemned the book for unethical procedures and for contradicting Catholic theology on a number of important points: "just for good measure Institoris forged a document granting their apparently unanimous approbation.
The book became the handbook for secular courts throughout Renaissance Europe, but was not used by the Inquisition, which "denied any authority to the Malleus " in the words of historian Wolfgang Behringer.
In modern times, the book has often been viewed as a typical inquisitorial manual, a perception that many historians have refuted. According to historian Jenny Gibbons:. Authors naively assumed that the book painted an accurate picture of how the Inquisition tried witches.
Heinrich Kramer, the text's demented author, was held up as a typical inquisitor. His rather stunning sexual preoccupations were presented as the Church's "official" position on witchcraft. Actually the Inquisition immediately rejected the legal procedures Kramer recommended and censured the inquisitor himself just a few years after the Malleus was published. Secular courts, not inquisitorial ones, resorted to the Malleus. Before it was rare for anyone to be prosecuted for witchcraft, but the increasingly common prosecution of heresy and failure to fully defeat these heretics paved the way for later criminal prosecution of witchcraft.
Previously, those convicted of witchcraft typically suffered penalties no more harsh than public penances such as a day in the stocks ,  but their prosecution became more brutal following the publication of the Malleus Maleficarum , as witchcraft became widely accepted as a real and dangerous phenomenon. Particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries an intense debate on the nature of witches preoccupied demonologists across Europe and they published many printed sermons, books and tracts.
The Catholic Church played an important role in shaping of debate on demonology, but the discourse was not much affected by the Reformation. Martin Luther was also convinced about the reality and evil of witches, and facilitated development of Protestant demonology. Catholic and Protestant demonologies were similar in their basic beliefs about witches  and most writers agreed on the severity of the crime of witchcraft.
During the Age of Enlightenment , belief in the powers of witches to harm began to die out in the West. For the post-Enlightenment Christians, the disbelief was based on a belief in rationalism and empiricism. The Malleus Maleficarum consists of the following parts: .
In this part it is briefly explained that prevalence of sorcery which is a method of Satan's final assault motivated authors to write the Malleus Maleficarum : . Hence, he has also caused a certain unusual heretical perversity to grow up in the land of the Lord — a Heresy, I say, of Sorceresses, since it is to be designated by the particular sex over which he is known to have power.
Copies of the Malleus Maleficarum contain a reproduction of a papal bull known as Summis desiderantes affectibus that is addressed to Heinrich Institoris and Jakob Sprenger. According to the date on the document, the papal bull had been issued in , two years before the Malleus Maleficarum was finished. Therefore, it is not an endorsement of a specific final text of the Malleus.
Instead, its inclusion implicitly legitimizes the handbook by providing general confirmation of the reality of witchcraft and full authority to Sprenger and Institoris in their preachings and proceedings:  . And they shall also have full and entire liberty to propound and preach to the faithful Word of God, as often as it shall seem to them fitting and proper, in each and all of the parosh churches in the said provinces, and to do all things necessary and suitable under the aforesaid circumstances, and likewise freely and fully to carry them out.
Text of approbation mentions that during proceedings Institoris had a letter from Maximilian, the newly crowned King of the Romans and son of Emperor Frederick III , which is summarized in the approbation: "[ Maximilian I] takes these Inquisitors under his complete protection, ordering and commanding each and every subject of the Roman Empire to render all favor and assistance to these Inquisitors and otherwise to act in the manner that is more fully contained and included in the letter.
The approbation consists of a preamble and is followed by a resolution in two parts. Let all those who will read, see or hear the present public document know that in the year since the Birth of Our Lord , in the fifth indiction, on Saturday, the nineteenth day of May, at five in the afternoon or thereabouts, in the third year of the Pontificate of Our Lord, the Most Holy Father in Christ, Lord Innocent VIII, by Divine Providence Pope, in the presence of my notary public and of the witnesses written below who had been specifically summoned and asked for this purpose, the venerable and religious Brother Henricus Institoris, Professor of Holy Theology and member of the Order of Preachers , who was appointed as Inquisitor into Heretical Depravity by the Holy See along with his colleague, the venerable and religious Brother Jacobus Sprenger, also a Professor of Holy Theology and Prior of the Convent of Preachers in Cologne[ Then, signatories complain that "Some curates of souls and preachers of the Word of God feel no shame at claiming and affirming in their sermons to the congregation that sorceresses do not exist"  and notice that the intention of the authors of the Malleus Maleficarum is not primarily to alleviate this ignorance but rather "toil to exterminate the sorceresses by explaining the appropriate methods of sentencing and punishing them in accordance with the text of the aforementioned Bull and the regulations of the Holy Canons, thereby achieving their extermination";  finally, signatories explain why they are providing their expertise:.
It is consonant with reason that those things that are done on behalf of the common good should also be confirmed through the common approval of the Doctors, and therefore, lest the aforementioned poorly educated curates and preachers think, in their ignorance of Holy Scripture , that the aforesaid treatise, which was composed in the manner mentioned above, is poorly supported by the determinations and pronouncements of the Doctors, they offered it for examination and comparison against Scripture to the illustrious University of Cologne or rather to certain Professors of Holy Theology, in order that if any things were found to be worthy of censure or incompatible with the Catholic Truth, they should be refuted by the judgment of those Professors, and that those things found to be compatible with the Catholic Truth should be approved.
This was in fact done in the ways written below. There are two signings, sometimes also referenced as two approbations. The difference is that four signatories of the first part testify that they have examined the treatises and endorse its text while in the second signing signatories do not assert that they have read the treatises but nonetheless express approval by explicitly restating some general propositions of the treatises and endorsing them instead.
In the first part, the opinion of a "temporary Dean of the Faculty of Holy Theology at Cologne" namely Lambertus de Monte of 's-Heerenberg [f] is expressed and then professors Jacobus Straelen of Noetlinck, Andreas Schermer of Ochsenfurt and Master Thoma de Scotia  testify that they agree with his opinion.
It should be ensured that this treatise will become known to learned and zealous men, who will then, on the basis of it, provide various healthy and appropriate advice for the extermination of sorceresses [ Indeed, according to the pronouncements of the Holy Doctors it is necessary to admit that such acts can sometimes happen. Nonetheless, secrets that are heard at any time by inquisitors should not be revealed to everyone. The Malleus Maleficarum asserts that three elements are necessary for witchcraft: the evil intentions of the witch, the help of the Devil, and the permission of God.
The first section is aimed at clergy and tries to refute critics who deny the reality of witchcraft, thereby hindering its prosecution. The second section describes the actual forms of witchcraft and its remedies. The third section is to assist judges confronting and combating witchcraft, and to aid the inquisitors by removing the burden from them. Each of the three sections has the prevailing themes of what is witchcraft and who is a witch. Section I examines the concept of witchcraft theoretically, from the point of view of natural philosophy and theology.
Witches entered into a pact with Satan to allow them the power to perform harmful magical acts, thus establishing an essential link between witches and the Devil. Matters of practice and actual cases are discussed, and the powers of witches and their recruitment strategies. The arguments are clearly laid for the lay magistrates prosecuting witches. The section offers a step-by-step guide to the conduct of a witch trial, from the method of initiating the process and assembling accusations, to the interrogation including torture of witnesses, and the formal charging of the accused.
Jakob Sprenger was an appointed inquisitor for the Rhineland , theology professor and a dean at the University of Cologne in Germany. Kramer and Sprenger were the first to raise harmful sorcery to the criminal status of heresy. The Malleus urges them to adopt torture, leading questions, the admission of denunciation as valid evidence, and other Inquisitorial practices to achieve swift results.
Moreover, the authors insist that the death penalty for convicted witches is the only sure remedy against witchcraft. They maintain that the lesser penalty of banishment prescribed by Canon Episcopi for those convicted of harmful sorcery does not apply to the new breed of witches, whose unprecedented evil justifies capital punishment.
The treatise often makes references to the Bible and Aristotelian thought, and it is heavily influenced by the philosophical tenets of Neoplatonism. It was a standard mode of argumentation in scholastic discourse with a long tradition. The ancient subjects of astronomy , philosophy , and medicine were being reintroduced to the West at this time, as well as a plethora of ancient texts being rediscovered and studied. The Malleus also mentions astrology and astronomy, which had recently been reintroduced to the West through the ancient works of Pythagoras.
Importantly, Kramer and Sprenger were convinced that God would never permit an innocent person to be convicted of witchcraft. The Malleus recommended not only torture but also deception in order to obtain confessions: "And when the implements of torture have been prepared, the judge, both in person and through other good men zealous in the faith, tries to persuade the prisoner to confess the truth freely; but, if he will not confess, he bid attendants make the prisoner fast to the strappado or some other implement of torture.
The attendants obey forthwith, yet with feigned agitation. Then, at the prayer of some of those present, the prisoner is loosed again and is taken aside and once more persuaded to confess, being led to believe that he will in that case not be put to death.
All confessions acquired with the use of torture had to be confirmed: "And note that, if he confesses under the torture, he must afterward be conducted to another place, that he may confirm it and certify that it was not due alone to the force of the torture. However if there was no confirmation, torture could not be repeated, but it was allowed to continue at a specified day: "But, if the prisoner will not confess the truth satisfactorily, other sorts of tortures must be placed before him, with the statement that unless he will confess the truth, he must endure these also.
But, if not even thus he can be brought into terror and to the truth, then the next day or the next but one is to be set for a continuation of the tortures — not a repetition, for it must not be repeated unless new evidences produced. The judge must then address to the prisoners the following sentence: We, the judge, etc. The treatise describes how women and men become inclined to practice witchcraft. The text argues that women are more susceptible to demonic temptations through the manifold weaknesses of their sex.
It was believed that they were weaker in faith and more carnal than men. Witches were usually female. The reasons for this is the suggestion that women are "prone to believing and because the demon basically seeks to corrupt the faith, he assails them in particular. The major reason is that at the foundation of sorcery is denial of faith and "woman, therefore, is evil as a result of nature because she doubts more quickly in the faith.
The most common form of male witch mentioned in the book is the sorcerer-archer. The book is rather unclear, but the impetus behind male witches seems to come more from desire for power than from disbelief or lust, as it claims is the case for female witches. Indeed, the very title of the Malleus Maleficarum is feminine, alluding to the idea that it was women who were the villains. Otherwise, it would be the Malleus Malefic o rum the masculine form of the Latin noun maleficus or malefica, 'witch'.
In Latin, the feminine maleficarum would only be used for women, while the masculine maleficorum could be used for men alone or for both sexes if together. It goes on to give accounts of witches committing these crimes. Arguments favoring discrimination against women are explicit in the handbook.
Those arguments are not novel but constitute a selection from the long tradition of Western misogynist writings. However, according to Brauner, they are combined to produce new meanings and result in a comprehensive theory. It mixes elements borrowed from Formicarius , Preceptorium divinae legis and Lectiones super ecclesiastes Kramer and Sprenger develop a powerful sex-specific theory of witchcraft based on a hierarchical and dualistic view of the world.
Everything exists in pairs of opposites: God and Satan, Mary and Eve, and men or virgins and women. Each positive principle in a pair is delineated by its negative pole. Perfection is defined not as the integration or preservation of opposites, but rather as the extermination of the negative element in a polar pair. Because women are the negative counterpart to men, they corrupt male perfection through witchcraft and must be destroyed.
Although authors give many examples of male witchery in the second part of the handbook, those witchcraft trials that are independently confirmed and that were led by Kramer himself are related to persecution of women almost exclusively. They took place in Ravensburg near Constance and Innsbruck since His position was in harmony with the scholastic theory at the time.
In contrast, Sprenger never conducted a witch trial  though he was consulted in a few cases. Authors warn of imminent arrival of the apocalypse foretold in the Bible and that men risk bewitchment that leads to impotence and sensation of castration. According to the Malleus , the only way a woman can avoid succumbing to her passions — and becoming a witch — is to embrace a life of devout chastity in a religious retreat.
But the monastic life is reserved to the spiritually gifted few. Therefore, most women are doomed to become witches, who cannot be redeemed; and the only recourse open to the authorities is to ferret out and exterminate all witches. Strixology in the Malleus Maleficarum is characterized by a very specific conception of what a witch is, one that differs dramatically from earlier times.
The word used, malefica, carries an explicit condemnation absent in other words referring to women with supernatural powers. The conception of witches and of magic by extension is one of evil. It differs from earlier conceptions of witchcraft that were much more generalized. This is the point in history where "witchcraft constituted an independent antireligion". The witch lost her powerful position vis-a-vis the deities; the ability to force the deities comply with her wishes was replaced by a total subordination to the devil.
In short, "[t]he witch became Satan's puppet. In this conception, a witch was a member of "a malevolent society presided over by Satan himself and dedicated to the infliction of malevolent acts of sorcery maleficia on others. According to Mackay, this concept of sorcery is characterized by the conviction that those guilty engage in six activities: . In the Malleus demons are the ones who tempt humans to sorcery and are the main figures in the witches' vows.
They interact with witches, usually sexually. The book claims that it is normal for all witches "to perform filthy carnal acts with demons. It is worth noting that not all demons do such things. The book claims that "the nobility of their nature causes certain demons to balk at committing certain actions and filthy deeds. For example, it devotes large sections to incubi and succubi and questions regarding their roles in pregnancies, the submission of witches to incubi, and protections against them.
Joseph Hansen, a historian who was appalled by the witch-craze and those who carried it out, proposed that coauthorship by Sprenger was a falsehood presented by Institoris Kramer and that approbation is partially a forgery. Christopher Mackay, author of the modern academic translation of the Malleus into English offers rebuttals to arguments of proponents of this theory   and in an interview gives an accessible summary:.
The argument was made in the nineteenth century by a scholar hostile to what the Malleus stood for that the approbation was a forgery by Institoris and that Sprenger had nothing to do with the composition. The evidence for this is in my view very tenuous and the main argument is clearly invalid.
Nonetheless, once the argument was put forward, it took on a life of its own, and people continue to advance arguments in favor of the idea that Sprenger's involvement was a falsification perpetrated by Institoris, despite the fact that this argument was vitiated from the start. In addition, Mackay points out that allegations raised in support of this theory that supposedly two of the signatories had not in fact signed the approbation are unsubstantiated.
A similar response is offered by the author of the first translation of the Malleus into English Montague Summers. In his introduction, he ignores completely the theory that joint authorship or approbation could be a mystification. Nonetheless, he mentions briefly that it was questioned whether Kramer or Sprenger contributed more to the work. He comments that "in the case of such a close collaboration any such inquiry seems singularly superfluous and nugatory".
Broedel, a historian who writes that it is likely that Sprenger's contribution was minimal, nonetheless says that "Sprenger certainly wrote the Apologia auctoris which prefaces the Malleus and agreed to be a coauthor. Wolfgang Behringer argues that Sprenger's name was only added as an author beginning in , thirty-three years after the book was first published and decades after Sprenger's own death. Many historians have also pointed out that Sprenger's actual views in his confirmed writings are often the opposite of the views in the Malleus , and Sprenger was unlikely to have been a colleague of Kramer since Sprenger in fact banned Kramer from preaching and entering Dominican convents within his jurisdiction, and spoke out against him on many occasions.
Jacob Sprenger 's name was added as an author beginning in , 33 years after the book's first publication and 24 years after Sprenger's death. Jenny Gibbons, a Neo-Pagan and a historian, writes: "Actually the Inquisition immediately rejected the legal procedures Kramer recommended and censured the inquisitor himself just a few years after the Malleus was published.
Secular courts, not inquisitorial ones, resorted to the Malleus ". The preface also includes an allegedly unanimous approbation from the University of Cologne 's Faculty of Theology. Nevertheless, many historians have argued that it is well established by sources outside the Malleus that the university's theology faculty condemned the book for unethical procedures and for contradicting Catholic theology on a number of important points : "just for good measure Institoris forged a document granting their apparently unanimous approbation.
In Heinrich Kramer had made one of the first attempts at prosecuting alleged witches in the Tyrol region. It was not a success and he was asked to leave the city of Innsbruck. According to Diarmaid MacCulloch , writing the book was Kramer's act of self-justification and revenge. Ankarloo and Clark claim that Kramer's purpose in writing the book was to explain his own views on witchcraft, systematically refute arguments claiming that witchcraft does not exist, discredit those who expressed skepticism about its reality, claim that those who practiced witchcraft were more often women than men, and to convince magistrates to use Kramer's recommended procedures for finding and convicting witches.
Kramer received a papal bull , Summis desiderantes affectibus , in It directed Bishop of Strasburg then Albert of Palatinate-Mosbach to accept the authority of Heinrich Kramer as an Inquisitor, although the motivation of the papal bull was likely political. Kramer was intensely writing and preaching until his death in Bohemia in They were worthy of presence and patronage of Patriarch of Venice. He was appointed as papal nuncio and his assignment as inquisitor was changed to Bohemia and Moravia by Pope Alexander VI in Later, he was elected Provincial Superior of the whole German Province in He had enormous responsibilities.
He received a letter from Pope Alexander VI praising his enthusiasm and energy in Sex-specific theory developed in the Malleus Maleficarum laid the foundations for widespread consensus in early modern Germany on the evil nature of witches as women. Those who did, attributed female witchery to the weakness of body and mind the old medieval explanation and a few to female sexuality.
Some authors argue that the book's publication was not as influential as earlier authors believed. The Malleus went through 28 editions between and and was accepted by Roman Catholics and Protestants alike as an authoritative source of information concerning Satanism and as a guide to Christian defense [against acts of Satan]. Between and , twenty editions of the Malleus Maleficarum were published, and another sixteen between and The invention of printing some thirty years before the first publication of the Malleus Maleficarum instigated the fervor of witch hunting, and, in the words of Russell, "the swift propagation of the witch hysteria by the press was the first evidence that Gutenberg had not liberated man from original sin.
The late 15th century was also a period of religious turmoil. Et simile est de alijs eorum operationibus. Ad propositum. Contra Arist. Primo de generatione. Omnis actio est per contactum. Est ad hoc etiam Auicen. Et eandem sententiam etiam ponit Algazel. Nam Grego. Sancti miracula faciunt, aliquando ex prece, aliquando ex potestate. Petrus orando suscitauit Thabitam mortuam. Sed contra est. Ad idem Vbi Magi in 9.
Vt Arist. Sed pro ampliori intellectu solutionum, aliqua dubia mouentur, ex quorum solutione veritas magis patebit. Animal enim visum prodest ictericis, prior videns lupus vocem aufert, vel sic Basiliscus si prior vidit, occidit, si prior videtur, occiditur. Sed dubium. Ad argumenta, patet responsio de fascinatione ad primum. Inspiciatur se. Semper tamen dicit, esse illicitum imaginibus vti. Circa primum tres erunt difficultates. Et iterum Adam inspiratus dixit : Erunt duo in carne vna, Genes.
Sed omnia corporalia sunt infra Intelligentias. Ergo possunt absque hoc, quod corpora assumant, transmutationes in seminibus facere. Antecedens probatur. Item gloss. Strabi super illud Exodi 7. Videatur etiam glossa ibidem, super illa verba : Vocauit Pharao. Item Genes. Et licet neminem timet, meritis tamen sanctorum subiacet. Iob penultimo. Nam libro 3. Sed libro 5.
Quod autem Incubos esse non sit credibile. Ad idem est glo. Vnde dicit glo. Et glossa beati Grego. Insuper illud Apostoli 1. Mulier debet habere velamen super caput suum propter Angelos, multi Catholici exponunt, quod sequitur, propter Angelos, id est. At idem est Beda in historijs Anglorum. Item Guilel. Et in secundo scripto dist. Et quolibet. Nec dubium, quin sub certis constellationibus semina vigorare sciunt, sub quibus homines etiam concepti, semper malitijs existunt deprauati.
Dicit gl. Omne enim peccatum quodcunque fecerit homo, extra corpus est, qui autem fornicatur, in corpus suum peccat. Ad argumenta. Tho in prima parte. Ad tertium. Hoc autem non fit propter debilitatem inferiorum. Probaturque ibi de Anima per similitudinem. Et quare illa excedunt, dicere possumus vt dicit S. Vnde indifferenter huiusmodi actibus habent insistere. Inde etiam illud : Vbi nullus ordo. Si hoc non est, dabitur ratio alia, cur non illis actibus indifferenter insistant.
Inter superbos semper sunt iurgia. Item Iob Inspiciat, qui vult, dicta Doctoris in 2. Et hoc videtur velle glossa super Ezechielem Nominatur etiam Belial, quod interpretatur absque iugo, vel absque domino, quia pro posse pugnat contra eum, cui deberet esse subiectus. Item Satanas, id est, aduersarius.
Vnde 1. Item Behemot, id est bestia, quia facit homines bestiales. Ad illud Iob. Vnde Sap. Potentes potenter tormenta patiuntur. Nam Augustinus in libr. Sed Maleficus deprauatur per peccatum, ergo causa illius non est Diabolus, sed voluntas humana. Peccatum hominis ex libero arbitrio procedit. Sed Diabolus non potest liberum arbitrium mouere, hoc enim libertati repugnaret, ergo Diabolus non potest esse causa, nec illius cuiuscunque peccati.
Sicut omnis multitudo reducitur ad vnum, ita omne multiforme reducitur in aliquod vniforme principium. Sunt ergo aliquo modo causa. Fortificatur argumentum ex 1. Malefici dicuntur ob magnitudinem fascinorum. Omne enim quod incipit de nouo, habet aliquam causam. Incipit enim homo operari quod vult. Principium ergo in bonis ad bona dicit esse Deum, qui non est causa peccati. Dicit enim Augustinus in lib. Sed ille reducit homines ad bonum, ergo iste ad malum.
Est n. Anima complexiones corporis imitatur, vt dicitur sex principijs. Nec iterum valet, si quis obijceret dictum Damas. Opinatur enim Damas. De quibus Isidor. Dicit enim beatus Dionysius 4. Etiam, vt Gulielmus in lib. Tertia via sumitur ex reprobatione fatalium effectuum. Sed tamen sancti Doctores hoc nomine vti recusauerunt, propter eos qui illud ad vim positionis syderum retorquebant. Vnde Aug. Hoc autem fit in istis artibus Maleficorum, nam vt patebit in executione, harum Fidem abnegant, innocentes pueros occidunt.
Nam hoc, quod non potest homo efficere absque Malitia, puta per sua naturalia imminuta, minus potest per ipsa naturalia iam diminuta. Nam Dionysius. Nam Iustitia Diuina est in toto vniuerso, sicut lex publica in ciuitate. Sic enim solus DEVS dicitur facere miracula. Hoc etiam patet de harmonijs per Philosop. De lingua. Iterum : Labia iusti erudiunt plurimos, qui autem indocti sunt, in cordis egestate morientur. Cuius causa ibidem De secundo, s. Hieronymus in epistola ad Nepotianum.
Negociatorem Clericum ex inope diuitem, ex ignobili gloriosum, quasi quandam pestem fuge. Et beatus Bernardus, homil. Et Grego. De Religiosis etiam dicit B. Et inter plura. Hinc Chrysost. Non expedit nubere. Tullius denique 2. Hinc Apost. Sanctificatus est enim vir infidelis per mulierem fidelem. Et Prouer. Si quis inspicere velit Vinc. Breuis omnis Malitia super Malitiam mulieris. Et Prouerb. Alludit huic rationi auctoritas diuersa.
Non est Ira super Iram mulieris. Cui Leoncius : Et quomodo vxor obstat feliciati? Et ille : Mariti hoc omnes sciunt. Nam vt ait Hier. Vnde non mirum, tantam multitudinem Maleficarum in hoc genere existere. Sed quale sit dominium mulierum, audi Tullium in Paradox.
Et sic de alijs. Non est homo in mundo, qui tantum studeat placere Deo benigno, quantum mulier etiam mediocris, suis vanitatibus studet hominibus placere. Nam sanctus Thomas in 4. Et Dionys. Refrenare autem in ordine huiusmodi appetitum, subiacet libero arbitrio, super quod etiam Diabolus minus habet potestatem. Ratio, quia sicut intelligere, secundum Philosophum, est quiddam pati. Est enim Fantasia seu Imaginatio, quasi thesaurus quidam formarum per sensus acceptarum. Nam vt Iac. Genesis A D argumenta autem respondendo.
Ad tertium argumentum, Cognoscere Cogitationes cordis, est dupliciter, vel in suo effectu, vel vt sunt in Intellectu. Vnde Augusti. Vnde quando arguitur. Item Diabolus non potest impedire actus aliarum virium naturalium, vt comedendi, ambulandi, erigendi, quod videtur esse verum ex eo, quia interimere possent totum mundum. Si per sortiarias. Responsio secundum Bonauen. Si aliquis.
Et pro solutione argumentorum, vbi difficultatur, an matrimonialiter coniunctis talia contingere possint. Nam si quis alia dicta Doctoris sancti in alijs locis considerat, rationes inuenit, quare asserit talem errorem extra radicem. Infidelitatis procedere. Si cui placet, legat Aug. Improbando autem hunc errorem, licet declarare hoc non deseruiat ad propositum, tamen propter eos qui copiam librorum non habent. Dicitur enim quarta q. Potest etiam super alios, quando Deus permittit.
Ad tertium similiter patet ex dictis. Item Augusti. Item 3. Vnde potest dici vera ablatio membri, ex parte imaginationis patientis, licet non ex parte rei, quod qualiter fit, sunt plura notanda. Et vt Alexander de Ales dicit, parte 2. Tribus modis potest fieri. Vnde Tho. Secundo modo naturali applicatione alicuius rei, prout dictum est, per interpositionem alicuius corporis, vt alterum occultetur, vel etiam ex Fantasijs hominum illas perturbando.
Nam dicit Gofre. Maleficium non potest solui semper per illum qui fecit, vel quia est mortuus, vel quia nescit delere ipsum, vel quia Maleficium est perditum. Sic enim nobis contigit. Vel etiam durabit, vbi ante eius sanationem Malefica discederet, vel locum mutando, vel ab hac vita discedendo.
Vnum quasi originans actum, s. De primo, s. Si Lector voluerit super modum transmutandi inspicere, inueniet in 2. Vnde dicit Aug. Secunda sententia ad idem modernorum DD. Tertia sententia est S. Fortificantur ista. Nam Alb. Et glo. Et Deu. Per quem autem modum? Et de leone qui Prophetam Dei iussum non implentem occidit. Alio modo etiam Maleficorum illusione. Non primum, quia talis iudicatur Inuidus, non secundum, quia talis iudicatur Impotens.
Ad idem Apostolus secundo Corinthiorum. Non est Deo cura de bobus. Patet hoc per Philo. Erit malum ad omnes, id est perfectionem vniuersi conferens. Et Augustinus in Ench. Item S. Nam super illud Iob. Et hoc tangit Aposto. Prouisor enim particularis necesse habet malum excludere quantum potest, quia non potest ex malo elicere bonum. Et huius exemplum etiam habemus in actionibus rerum naturalium.
Vt enim species rerum conseruentur, oportet vt corruptio vnius sit conseruatio alterius. Occisiones enim animalium conseruant vitam leonum. Hanc solutionem tangit S. Prima, vt ostendatur Dei potentia, qui solus inuertibilis est, omnis autem creatura mutabilis. Iuxta illud August. Ad tertium, August. Quicquid patimur, peccatis nostris meremur. Nam peccatum quod quis committit, quod faciliter vitare potuisset, excedit peccatum quod aliter committit, quod ita faciliter vitare non potuit.
Patet per Augustinum in lib. Magna est in peccando iniquitas, vbi est tanta in non peccando facilitas. Ergo illorum peccata omnia Maleficorum flagitia excedunt. Nam iuxta August. Sed econtra, Id quod plures rationes mali includit, magis est malum, sed peccata Maleficarum sunt huiusmodi.
Vnde eorum peccata grauiora sunt alijs peccatis. Vel difficultate remittendi, vt peccatum in Spiritum sanctum. Vel inseparabilitate, vt peccatum Cupiditatis. Vel expugnandi difficultate, vt Superbia. Peccatum est. Si primo modo, tunc est Infidelitas paganorum seu gentilium. Nam 2. Tamen secundum Raymund. Et hoc fieret si vxorem duceret, vel simile tale.
Si autem. Sic enim Salomon dijs suarum vxorum Reuerentiam exhibuit. Nec enim aliquis excusatur, si ex metu hoc faceret, quia secundum August. Aliqui habent Satius. Loquens de similibus operibus Magicis. Non enim potest homo duobus dominis seruire. Nam si iuxta Augusti. Omne quod non est ex Fide peccatum est. An omnis Actio Infidelis sit peccatum? Et sic intelligitur illud Aug. De quibus omnibus Lector inueniet super primum, de senten. Qui contra pacem.
Excommunicamus 1. Exemplum de punitione Dauid in enumeratione populi per pestem. Exemplum de peccato Achor, Iosue. Nam vt Gratia. Iuxta illud Deutero. Declara de iudicio poli. Et recipe tres primas causas : Reliquas duas accipe pro culpis proprijs. Exemplum in Iob 1. Exemplum in Paulo, qui de se dicit, 2. Exemplum de Maria sorore Aaron. Regum, quod notat Greg. Hoc est, quod Deut. Et de his Thom.
Et huiusmodi artis erat illa Maga Pythonissa, de qua 1. Quia vt August. Ad secundum. Inspiciat etiam dictum Augustini. Nec mirum. Vnde indignatus Paulus, imperauit spiritui exire ab ea. Et Chyromantici qui ex lineamentis manuum, aut spatulis animalium diuinant. Et hoc quidem ad culpas demonstrare, non est difficile varijs rationib. Vel secundum Damasce. Peccator autem ad Innocentiam per Baptismum restitutus, iterum ab illo cadens multum profundatur. A D argumenta.
An pueri mox nati, fuissent in Gratia confirmati. Item quoli. An ijdem qui nunc saluantur homines, saluati fuissent, si Adam non peccasset. Et primum sumitur ex parte Dei. Secundum ex parte Diaboli. Quartum ex parte morbi. Sed ad respondendum super argumenta. Ex quibus etiam duob. Ephe Vide S. A simili. Nihil fit nisi omnipotens Deus fieri velit, vel sinendo vt fiat, vel faciendo. Respondetur quod varijs modis. Non licet. Res gesta vni ex nobis innotuit. Sunt quidam qui per certam practicam Experientiam rei capiunt per hunc modum.
Sed quid de his sentiendum sit, an videlicet practica licita sit an non, circa tertium principale huius tractatus tractabitur. Ad secundum, cur Principibus non nocent, causa est manifesta, quia quantum in ipsis est, hoc fit, vt ipsos in Amicitia retineant. Respondetur, quia bonus Angelus ex altera parte hoc Maleficium impedit, Iuxta illud Danielis : Princeps Persarum restitit mihi viginti vna diebus. Exempla varia ad hoc possent adduci, sed temporis prolixitas non patitur.
Et primi sunt, qui publicam contra eos Iustitiam exercent, aut officio aliquo publico aduersus eos insistunt. De quo tertium genus hominum, qui maleficari non possunt, iam inferius patebit. Thomas in quodam loco, super tertium senten. Nam ita factum est de S. Abbatis Sereni prima. Sic etiam de B. Equitio Abbate, dicit beatus Grego. Ita in vita patrum eorum, quos S.
Tunc illi iuramentum ab eo excipientes quod exegerant, eum eunucharunt. Non minus beneficium collatum esse legimus Beato Tho. Et quod dicitur Hier. Nam sicut S. In cuius figura Iudic. Nouimus in diocesi Augustiensi hospitem, cui infra annum Qua ex re colligitur, quantis versutijs antiquus ille hostis in seductionem animarum debachatur.
Et sicut talium iuuencularum non est numerus, vt heu experientia docet, ita nec numerus Maleficarum, ex eis insurgentium, pauca ex multis referamus. Est locus in diocesi Brixin. Accidit vt ad ciuitatem Metensem, ob negotiorum quorundam expeditionem applicaret. Illa attonita paululum siluit. Et Comes cernens eam attonitam, amplius verbis blandis eam aggreditur, ad collationem inuitando.
Tunc illa, an ne pueros generasset inquisiuit. Et Comes : tres mihi, ait, sunt pueri masculi, quolibet anno vnum genuit. Tunc amplius illa stupefacta paululum siluit. Vnde profitendi vbi describitur, satis declarat de alijs speciebus. Sed hoc circa infantes non renatos fonte baptismatis, quos autem deuorant renati sunt vt patebit, sed non nisi Deo permittente. Modus autem profitendi duplex est.
Vnus solennis, per simile ad votum solenne. Sequitur aliud exemplum ab eodem. Ordo, inquit, talis est, quo etiam seductus sum. Ex quibus liquet modus profitendi earum solennis. Ex coniecturis tamen in illorum cognitionem deuenit, vt etiam iam inferius patebit. Nam quia secundum August. Nam in Basilien. Nomen sacerdotis dicitur Paff Helim, iam in diocesi Argentinen. Simile in diocesi Basilien. Tales etiam pueri semper sunt miseri eiulantes.
Et licet quatuor aut quinque matres vix sufficerent ad lactandum, nunquam tamen impinguantur, sed vltra modum ponderosi existunt. Vellem, inquiunt, vt Diabolum portares, vel similia. De alijs etiam hominibus interdum iustis, exempla plurima reperiuntur.
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